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      • Contactplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigContact

        If you have a burning desire to contact me, use the discussion form below. Anything you say remains private between you and me.
      • Cookie Policy & GDPRplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigCookie Policy & GDPR

        There are NO tracking cookies on this site!

        The Cookie policy is straightforward. This site only uses cookies that are required to make your experience of using this site better, and only uses session cookies (see exceptions below). Session cookies are deleted when you close your browser.
      • Downloadsplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigDownloads

        Orbital Calculator Current Version This is a portable application, meaning there is no installer. Just unzip into a folder and run the executable. Since it is portable, it can be run from a USB stick.

        A full description and a list of the features are available
      • International Space Stationplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigInternational Space Station

        This page has a portal through which you can view the current location of the International Space Station, updating in real-time. The tracker itself comes from the European Space Agency (ESA).

        Part of the tool doesn't seem to be working properly yet, raising an error when the widget first loads. A possible explanation for the error is detailed below. There is also a handy link to get email notifications direct from NASA when the ISS is visible in your night sky.
      • Mars Mission Locatorplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigMars Mission Locator

        [Mars Missions] The location of all the missions that have gone to Mars can be confusing when you don't know where they went. Many missions never made it to the surface successfully, or had a malfunction that prevented them from working properly. Some of the landers introduced themselves to the surface with a little too much vigour. Others sailed on past Mars never to be seen again.
      • Mars Weather Reportsplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigMars Weather Reports

        These reports are provided by NASA's InSight lander in the south-west corner of Elysium Planitia. Daily readings are usually a couple of days behind reality.

        This page is updated as new data is detected.

        Last update: 10:35 Sat. Dec 5th, 2020 GMT
      • NASA Image of the Dayplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigNASA Image of the Day

        Date: Sat 5th December, 2020

        Title: Mons Rumker in the Ocean of Storms

        Mons Rumker, a 70 kilometer wide complex of volcanic domes, rises some 1100 meters above the vast, smooth lunar mare known as Oceanus Procellarum, the Ocean of Storms. Daylight came to the area late last month. The lunar terminator, the shadow line between night and day, runs diagonally across the left side in this telescopic close-up of a waxing gibbous Moon from November 27. China's Chang'e-5 miss…
      • Near Earth Objectsplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigNear Earth Objects

        (c)www.astroart.org The following data is reproduced from the NASA NEO (Near Earth Object) database, and is updated daily. Each record represents an object such as an asteroid or comet, and notes the date and approximate time the object is closest to the Earth as it passes by. The data is refreshed daily covering the period displayed on this page.
      • Perseverance Roverplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigPerseverance Rover

        Perseverance has launched succesfully and the clock is now counting flight and ETA time. It is due to land on Mars on (times and countdown timer based on NASA's timer):

        * Feb 18th 2021. * * * * * * *
      • Rules on Reviewingplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigRules on Reviewing

        First off, you should know I only have a limited amount of time, so I can't review a hundred novels at once. Sorry, but that's basic physics for you. If I agree to review your novel, you may have to wait a while for me to get around to it, and then I'll need time to read it. I only review hard copies.
        • A Keen Interest In Marsplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigA Keen Interest In Mars

          [MOLA globe of Mars]You may have noticed from pages such as the Mars Weather Report page, that I have a keen interest in Mars, Martian weather, and the InSight lander.

          Mars itself, and the incredible science we are doing there is of course a fascination in and of itself. However, my interest goes deeper than that. My latest novel (at the time this article was written - March 2019) is about the exploration of Mars. NASA have provided a wealth of data and information for …
        • A New Siteplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigA New Site

          Yup, the old site was as ugly as sin and to find a blog entry you had to scroll through the feed or take your chances with the search option.

          This new site is just as easy to maintain, has extensive search capabilities, and both orders and structures the entries. Not only does this make it easier for you to find stuff, it encourages you to browse around. It's not as ugly either.
        • Getting To Marsplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigGetting To Mars

          [Mars] Edit: updated to include

          There are multiple ways to get to Mars, and each has pros and cons. The one thing they all have in common is orbital mechanics. Some options can get to Mars in a short period of time, while others could take up to a year. Some are better suited for robotic missions, others for crewed missions. This article takes a look at the problems of getting to Mars (and getting back) and what options are available.
        • How do I Calculate Distance from Period?plugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigHow do I Calculate Distance from Period?

          I've been asked how Orbital Calculator can calculate the distance an object is from a gravitational mass, using just its period (the time it takes to complete an orbit). The technique is relatively simple, so I'll explain it.
        • NASA Boarding Passplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigNASA Boarding Pass

          I took the plunge and got my NASA boarding pass for the Mars 2020 Rover mission.

          [NASA Boarding pass for Mars 2020 Mission]

          Get yours here: NASA Website SEND YOUR NAME TO MARS
        • NASA Receives 2 Emmy Awardsplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigNASA Receives 2 Emmy Awards

          NASA recently won (14th-15th Sept 2019) two Emmy's for interactive content. Aside from the obvious achievements of winning the awards, there is something else going on here that should be recognised and encouraged. Awards, of course, are intended to recognise, encourage and promote excellence, but I'm talking about NASA not only reaching out to the public, but interactively engaging them.
        • Orbital Calculator v1.0.0.5 Updateplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigOrbital Calculator v1.0.0.5 Update

          You can now calculate distance from a gravitational mass using the orbital period. The image above shows a calculation for Mars which has a 687 day year.

          I've allowed the use of tokens to identify time components to make it easy to use. The examples shown in the image should explain how it works.
        • Orbital Shenanigansplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigOrbital Shenanigans

          [MOLA map of Mars coloured by elevation]

          Edited: 2019-03-14

          Sometimes when you do some research – actually, quite often – you find out some really interesting stuff and end up changing your mind. In my story, I had some people on the ground on Mars, and wanted a spacecraft in a geostationary orbit above them to give them communications between them at all times. Just for info, when talking about geostationary orbits, the accepted term for Mars is aerostationary. I’ll use g…
        • Adjustment to Mars Clocksplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigAdjustment to Mars Clocks

          [Martian clock showing time at the prime meridian] The Martian clocks (keeping Martian time) on the Mars Weather page also display the L (pron. ell sub ess) - a way of describing where the planet is in its orbit, and the displacement of the sun in the sky at midday. I noticed the value for this was out by some distance, and after pondering the problem (and the code) for a while, the penny dropped.
        • Another Dayplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigAnother Day

          A busy day today. I had an interview for a job today, so fingers crossed. Orbital Calculator got some attention too: I added the ability to have escape velocities output in km, metres or miles (per second) in the Gravity and Motion calculations - previously, output was just in km/s. I've tested and compiled and tested again, and I'll zip up the various releases and upload them to this site tomorrow (actually, later today - it's nearly 3am!).
        • Automatic Weather Updatesplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigAutomatic Weather Updates

          The Mars Weather page is now 99.99% automatic, with rebuilds regularly throughout the day. The 0.001% that's not automated? Once a week I have to update the image that shows the relative positions of the inner planets. I think I can manage that
        • Hogfather Update 2plugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigHogfather Update 2

          The Website will be down for a short period Sun, Aug 2nd 2020 while the site is upgraded

          I shall be taking the site down for a while on Sun, Aug 2nd 2020, while i perform the upgrade. Although I have a local copy of the website, I also do a bit of experimentation on it, so the two are not perfectly synchronised, so I'll have to make a backup of the site and download it first. It'll actually take longer to do that than perform the update. It should all be over in less than tw…
        • Info Reportplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigInfo Report

          N.B. This page gets bumped every now and again when new info is added.

          I've been pruning some of the stale articles and blog posts. If anything is broken, please let me know.
        • Mars July 2020plugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigMars July 2020

          It's mid-July now, and temperatures at the InSight lander's location on Mars (south-west corner of Elysium in the northern hemisphere) are teetering on the edge and about to fall. At the end of the month - July 30th - NASA's Perseverance rover (formerly known as the Mars 2020 rover) gets its first launch opportunity. It had previously been scheduled to launch two weeks earlier but, you know, things happened.
        • Mars Solar Conjunctionplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigMars Solar Conjunction

          This page is currently inactive for 2019 conjunction (until next conjunction in 2021)

          Mars is heading for a solar conjunction, which in layman's terms means it's on the opposite side of the sun from the Earth. For a short period, no commands will be sent to the Mars spacecraft (which includes landers and rovers) since the sun's corona could corrupt those commands and result in unintended actions, disablement of the spacecraft or worse.
        • Mars Weather Data Flows Againplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigMars Weather Data Flows Again

          It appears that after a long hiatus, Mars Weather data is flowing again.
        • Mars Weather Page Updateplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigMars Weather Page Update

          [Temperature over time] I've updated the format of the Temperature Over Time chart on the Mars Weather page to make it more readable. The sol numbers were overlapping each other, despite being broken into two rows. The chart is now interactive, in that you can use your mouse (or other pointing device) to select a position on one of the temperature graphs, and the sol number will be displayed at the bottom.
        • Orbital Calculator 2.0.7 Releasedplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigOrbital Calculator 2.0.7 Released

          This is a maintenance update. see Release Notes for details.
        • Orbital Calculator v2.0.6 Releasedplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigOrbital Calculator v2.0.6 Released

          [Orbital Calculator v2.0.6] Four major new functions for acceleration and gravity and a few tweaks under the hood. New functions include: Constant Velocity, Free-Fall, N-Body Centre of Gravity (in 3D space) and Distance/Speed/Time.

          These powerful functions allow you to calculate speed as a constant, as constant acceleration or as increasing acceleration, as well as determine the common centre of gravity of any number of astronomical or artificial space-born o…
        • Pi Zero Planplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigPi Zero Plan

          I've been wondering what to do with my Raspberry Pi Zero, and didn't think I'd come up with an idea for a few months. Like most things, it's not necessarily a good idea to go looking for a use for it: wait until a use suggests itself.
        • Raw Weather Dataplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigRaw Weather Data

          I have (at last) managed to get hold of all the Mars Weather data that's been missing from my dataset. In fact, I've got hold of so much (over 110Gb) that it's going to take some processing - it bears little resemblance to the data I currently fetch. I need a plan.
        • Scatter Graphplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigScatter Graph

          I've added a scatter graph to the Near Earth Object page, to show when objects are at closest approach and at what distance.
        • Site Softwareplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigSite Software

          Some people have expressed an interest in what software I use for this site. It's built around DokuWiki with some extensions to make it work like a blog, keep it transparent (all the articles and entries are visible in the treeview menu) and to spruce things up - such as the auto-tooltip which displays the first part of a page when the user mouses over an internal link (this also works in the top-bar menu). Some extensions make administering the site easier, such as moving articl…
        • Site Statisticsplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigSite Statistics

          For the last year I've been using a plugin for my site that generates a statistics page, through which I can keep an eye on how well the site is doing. A couple of days ago, it stopped working. After a bit of analysis I discovered the data structures it was creating in memory had consumed too much of said memory and my hosting service had auto-assassinated it.
        • Updatesplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigUpdates

          The physical Martian clock... I have to come up with a better name for it than that. PiMars! Yup, I like that. The PiMars clock was up and running and displaying data at a crucial time. It was just a couple of hours before the end of the day at the InSight location, and as luck would have it, I had it display time at that place.
        • Weather Page Updateplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigWeather Page Update

          Mon Aug 10, 2020

          I've made some updates to the Mars Weather page.

          * Bugfix to Wind direction chart to correctly show most common wind direction and sample count * Smoothed the max/min data lines in the Temperature over Time chart so anomolies don't distort the location of the lines
          • Pi-Mars Installationplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigPi-Mars Installation

            You require an RPIv2 or later (to use the SmartiPi Touch 2 case, you require an RPI4). It will not run on an RPI1 or an RPI-Zero. This installation and configuration guide assumes you have installed an operating system on your Pi and can login either directly (with a keyboard/monitor attached to the Pi) or indirectly through SSH or VNC across a network.
          • Pi-Mars v1.1plugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigPi-Mars v1.1

            Pi-Mars is a clock for the Raspberry Pi, that tells the time anywhere on Mars. It has options to nominate ad-hoc locations, pre-selected locations and sites of the various missions that made it to the Martian surface. It is skinnable and highly configurable.
          • SmartSuitplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigSmartSuit

            SmartSuit: A Hybrid, Intelligent, and Highly Mobile EVA Spacesuit for Next Generation Exploration Missions

            Developer: Texas A&M Engineering Experiment Station

            I think the title says it all, but just in case it wasn't crystal clear, this is what they have to say about it:
          • THE MOST Space Telescopeplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigTHE MOST Space Telescope

            [Disambiguation: this page is about The High Étendue Multiple Object Spectrographic Telescope, not Canada's MOST space telescope]

            Few telescopes can honestly say they've reinvented the concept, yet THE MOST certainly has. It works on a surprisingly old principle, by passing light through two prisms. As Isaac Newton demonstrated, this first splits light into its constituent components, then recombines it back again.
        • Dragonfly to Explore Titanplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigDragonfly to Explore Titan

          Credits: NASA/JHU-APL Few worlds excite exoplanetary chemists like Titan, Saturn's enigmatic and largest moon. It is the second-largest moon in the solar system, and the only one known to have a dense atmosphere. As such, it is seen as an analogue to the early Earth, and therefore important in understanding how life might have evolved on our homeworld.
        • How Big Is The Universe?plugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigHow Big Is The Universe?

          [Hubble deep Field Image]

          I recently came across a youtube video explaining a method for multiplication that was quite different from long multiplication. To explain why this was so interesting, let’s first talk about long multiplication and what’s wrong with it, and then we'll calculate the size of the visible universe in centimeters.
        • Landing the Mars 2020 Rover Safelyplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigLanding the Mars 2020 Rover Safely

          Autonomous landings are always fraught with danger. One of the most dangerous terrains any landing might occur on is a boulder field. Not only would the impact of the landing on these hard objects be a threat, but the boulders are likely to be jagged too. Another threat are the steep cliffs of the crater - not falling off them (although that's a possibility), but crashing into them.
        • Magnetic Field Lines on a Galactic Scaleplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigMagnetic Field Lines on a Galactic Scale

          [Powerful magnetic fields are visible]

          The Cigar galaxy (M82) is already famous for the speed at which it creates new stars. The composite image shows the powerful magnetic field lines on a truly epic scale, wrapping around the entire galaxy. NASA's SOFIA observatory (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy - a converted Boeing 747) has shed light on what is happening.
        • Mysterious Starplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigMysterious Star

          Back in 2016, Tabetha Boyajian gave a TED talk about a star with nifty little name KIC 8462852. The Kepler space telescope had studied it and lots of other stars over the course of four years, but this one stood out.

          Also known as Tabby's Star, it is a main-sequence F-type star located in the constellation Cygnus, about 1,480 light-years from Earth. Its claim to fame of course, is that it was suggested that alien megastructures would explain the weird data that Kepler had recor…
        • NASA Got it Wrong - Oops!plugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigNASA Got it Wrong - Oops!

          It's not every day you get the chance to tell NASA they screwed up.

          I was reviewing the data I'd collected from NASA's Mars Weather page, and I noticed that the graphs they generated didn't match the summary data.

          For example, the summary data for Sol 169 shows the maximum temperature peaking at -17.6°C, while the graph for the same day showed the temperature never rising above -25°C.
        • To the Moon and Marsplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigTo the Moon and Mars

          [The Moon - watch out, here we come (again)!]NASA has outlined an aggressive timetable for an equally aggressive return to the Moon, with a view to making the Moon a waystation for trips to Mars. This requires the development of a whole slew of new technologies, as well as ramping up existing technologies and capabilities to whole new levels.
        • Calculate your Age and Weight on the Planetsplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigCalculate your Age and Weight on the Planets

          This little calculator allows you to calculate how old you would be on each of the planets in the solar system, and what your weight would be. If you have weight issues, don't look at the result for Jupiter!
        • DLCounter Pluginplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigDLCounter Plugin

          [screenshot]

          This download-counter plugin for DokuWiki enables you to keep track of the number of downloads of media files such as zip, gzip, tarballs and pdf's (your choice of media formats). This plugin has been developed and tested on “Greebo
        • DLCounter Plugin Bugtrackerplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigDLCounter Plugin Bugtracker

          If you have any issues with the plugin, leave a comment here.
        • Orbital Calculatorplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigOrbital Calculator

          I needed to calculate orbital characteristics for any orbit around any gravitational mass (because I write sci-fi stories), so I wrote this program because I'm a programmer and I'm too lazy to do it by hand all the time. The program has expanded over the last few years, sometimes from suggestions by other writers. I make it freely available and as simple to use as possible. It now has a list of functions as long as your arm (assuming you're not a tentacle user), and the numbe…
        • Orbital Calculator v2.x Release Notesplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigOrbital Calculator v2.x Release Notes

          This lists the important notes on each new release, explaining what has changed and what's new.

          See the Downloads page to download Orbital Calculator for various platforms. A full description of the product is available on the
        • Surface Gravity Calculatorplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigSurface Gravity Calculator

          Want to know what the surface gravity is on any celestial object? You just need to know it's mass in terms of Earth masses (e.g. Earth = 1, Venus = 0.815, Mars = 0.107 etc.) and it's radius. This calculator will do the rest.
      • Animal Farmplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigAnimal Farm

        As a writer, I love sitting at my computer and either writing my next novel, or working on the development phase - world-building, character creation, plot development etc. However, after 12 hours sitting at my desk I'm getting a bit uncomfortable and if I listen very carefully, I can hear the sofa's siren call
      • Description or Teaser?plugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigDescription or Teaser?

        When you write the blurb that goes on the back of the book, should you write a description or a teaser? This article explores that question, explaining why each of them work and what their effects are, and why sometimes one is a better choice than the other.
      • Oh, The Facts!plugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigOh, The Facts!

        [Only the facts, ma'am]There was a litany that writers used to be told, but is rarely heard these days. If you've been a writer for more than ten years you will probably recall it: “Stick to the facts!”. Does that mean your story ends up a dry, soulless, sequential list of equally dry, soulless facts? Of course not.
      • Proper Paragraph Spacing and Indenting on Web Pagesplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigProper Paragraph Spacing and Indenting on Web Pages

        This is a short article on how to setup the correct CSS in order to replicate the paragraph spacing and indenting displayed in a book on your web pages. It will also enlarge and embolden the first character in the scene.
      • Self-Publishing Trapsplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigSelf-Publishing Traps

        Sometimes it's a while before I post a new book review. Usually this is because I've read some self-published novels that I don't want to review. When I post a review, I'm telling readers about a book I'd recommend. This is good for readers, and it's good for the authors who get the recommendation. I'm not out to harm someone's writing career - which can always be turned around in the future - and I'm certainly not the sort of pompous umm, donkey, that simply lets my mouth…
      • Smart but Dumb Aliensplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigSmart but Dumb Aliens

        We all know the problem, especially from video games and movies, where the super-smart aliens turn out to be really dumb. This is usually because the creator hasn't put much thought into it.

        So, you're creating a super-intelligent alien or species or civilisation for your short story or novel or whatever. How do you avoid the pitfalls of dumbing them down?
      • Story Structure (Hero's Journey)plugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigStory Structure (Hero's Journey)

        The Hero's Journey is an overlay for the 4-part story structure. See how they work in conjunction with the character arc.

        ----------

        Click on this image to review it, then click it again to see it full size

        Other Structures
      • The Prophecyplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigThe Prophecy

        [Myrddin]Prophecy is a common theme in fantasy, partly because it tugs on the strings that are entangled with mythos - somehow it just excites us - and partly because it is a huge convenience. Never underestimate the power of a single word. In all of writing, there are few words that are as powerful as
      • Voices in the Darkplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigVoices in the Dark

        A scene that is all dialogue and no action creates the dreaded “voices in the dark”. Perhaps they're at a conference table, or standing around talking things through before making a decision that will propel the story into its next phase.
          • Silvertongueplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigSilvertongue

            [Silvertongue]

            Silvertongue is the first in a series named “Remnants of Magic”, and both the title of the novel and the series become readily apparent in the first scene. Speaking of the first scene, it's a big one at 100 pages spanning eleven chapters, but don't let that put you off - it's one hell of a scene. The story kicks you straight into the action and that first scene is a long and continuous battle - and the poor protagonist (Jon) hasn't got a clue what's going on or why…
          • Beyond Falcon's Reachplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigBeyond Falcon's Reach

            Beyond Falcon's Reach by Jay Northearn, is a mish-mash of high fantasy, gothic-horror, steampunk and electropunk, with a dash of semi-intelligent machine-learning AI's thrown-in to boot. Yet for all of this, the world Northearn has created is homogenous and holistic - two watchwords I'll bang on about until the cows come home, to anyone who'll listen. Giving everything in your world a place and a reason for being there is something that every writer should always keep i…
        • The Bluffers Guide to the Quantum Universeplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigThe Bluffers Guide to the Quantum Universe

          [The Bluffers Guide to the Quantum Universe]

          The Bluffers Guide to the Quantum Universe is a very funny guide (read: hilarious) to things surrounding quantum mechanics. Who the major players were, how the major theories won out over each other... or didn't. Tons of interesting facts you can toss around at parties and make it look like you know what you're talking about when discussing anything to do with quantum theory, quantum mechanics, who was who…
          • Creation Machineplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigCreation Machine

            Andrew Bannister’s “Creation Machine” is the best novel I’ve read this year – and that’s saying something, I’ve read some of the best sci-fi novels from the last five years in the last ten months.

            The breadth and depth of his imagination is incredible. He’s created an entire artificial galaxy, given it character and taken us on a tour that is as exciting as it is varied.
          • Iron Godsplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigIron Gods

            Another novel of The Spin, and following on from Creation Machine, Iron Gods continues in much the same vein. There are intriguing and plausible characters, a spaceship AI that has had its lobotomy reversed, strange worlds and even stranger economic forces.
          • Stone Clockplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigStone Clock

            The third outing in The Spin series from acclaimed author Andrew Bannister, Stone Clock, has a dark edge to it. Already an accomplished writer, Bannister has taken things up a notch.

            His usual mélange of lucid and slightly demented imagination is in full force, and the array of modes of humour are all present and permeate the pages as if they’d been dipped in the stuff.
          • Hard-Boiled Wonderlandplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigHard-Boiled Wonderland

            [Hard-Boiled Wonderland]

            Chris Morton is a writer with a certain pedigree, having been shortlisted for a Guardian award, this story is his third novel and his first in science-fiction.

            It tells the story of a man (Maggie Flycatcher) who has almost certainly the most boring job in history: he's a lemon tree supervisor. The creative talent that can come up with such a pointless job is one that deserves some recognition, so it instantly grabbed my attention. Flycatcher's …
          • Colony One Marsplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigColony One Mars

            [Colony One Mars] [4.5 stars]

            Colony One Mars promises to be a fast-paced sci-fi thriller, and it certainly delivers. The prologue is short and sweet, and although it doesn't offer any story information that isn't in the story proper, it does set up the atmosphere for what is to follow. The tension ramps up very quickly and most unexpectedly, and everything changes before we've had a chance to grab our breath.
          • Colony Three Marsplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigColony Three Mars

            [Colony Three Mars by Gerald M. Kilby] [4 Stars] The third instalment in the saga is even messier (for the protagonists) than the previous two, ramping up the tension and the action, and making the solution even harder for the reader to predict. The cast of protagonists has grown a little, but that's fair because the cast of antagonists has too.
          • Colony Two Marsplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigColony Two Mars

            [Colony Two Mars] [4 Stars] Colony Two Mars picks up the story a few years after the preceding story, Colony One Mars left off. I really enjoyed the first instalment in this trilogy, but this is a much better, much stronger story. As the overarching story of the trilogy begins to emerge, Kilby's eye for a good story starts to pay dividends.
        • Science Fiction Double Featureplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigScience Fiction Double Feature

          [Science Fiction Double Feature ]

          This pair of novellas comes courtesy of Zombie Pirate Publishing, and indeed the stories themselves come from the publishing house's founders and resident editors, Sam M. Phillips (Into the Eye) and Adam Bennett (Phosphorus).

          Since they come as a pair it is necessary of me to review each in turn before giving an overall impression, and I've chosen the order they appear between the covers.
    • DokuWikiplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigDokuWiki

      wiki:dokuwiki DokuWiki is a simple to use and highly versatile Open Source wiki software that doesn't require a database. It is loved by users for its clean and readable Formatting Syntax. The ease of maintenance, backup and integration makes it an administrator's favorite. Built in
    • Formatting Syntaxplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigFormatting Syntax

      DokuWiki supports some simple markup language, which tries to make the datafiles to be as readable as possible. This page contains all possible syntax you may use when editing the pages. Simply have a look at the source of this page by pressing
blog:aardvaark:mars_weather

Mars Weather Reports

These reports are provided by NASA's InSight lander in the south-west corner of Elysium Planitia. Daily readings are usually a couple of days behind reality.

This page is updated as new data is detected.
Last update: 10:35 Sat. Dec 5th, 2020 GMT

If the image doesn't display, please wait. The NASA websites sometimes get busy.

Explanation of the Wind Speed Chart
Wind speed is shown in meters per second, as measured by the pair of TWINS booms. The barbs extending from each wind speed data point indicate the compass direction of the wind (e.g., a wind blowing from the north will have a barb straight up above the point; a wind blowing from the west will have a barb off to the left). Full and half flags extending from the barbs indicate the wind speed, with each half flag representing approximately 2.5 meters per second. A circle in place of a barb indicates a wind speed less than 2.5 meters per second.

Full details can be seen at https://mars.nasa.gov/insight/weather/
Images Courtesy of NASA/JPL-Caltech/Cornell/CAB

:!: Note: There is a discrepancy between the summary data and the charts provided by NASA (good on you if you spotted this - if not, go hunt the thimble!). I've notified them and hopefully they'll do something about it.

Wind Speed

To put wind speed in perspective, the dust on Mars is talcum-powder fine. It requires a wind speed of 64kph (~40mph) to pick it up. 64kph equates to approximately 17.78m/s. The air is incredibly thin, just 0.06% the density of Earth's atmosphere at sea level, so it takes a high wind speed to generate enough Newtons to pick even these tiny particles up.

Typical air pressure on Earth is around 1000mb = 1bar = 100,000 pascals.

Martian Day

The Martian day is 39 mins 35.244 secs longer than a standard day. This means that approx every 36.1 days the Earth date skips a day while the Martian Sol marches on as normal. You can see this in the data below. April 16th 2019 seems to be missing, yet the Sols on April 15th and April 17th are consecutive.

It is Saturday!

Wind Distribution Graphs

Wind distribution graphs indicate from which directions wind was most prevalent during the course of a day. You can select from the last 30 days worth of data (first detailed wind direction data is for sol 539).



Click Sol to plot its Wind Direction distribution: Values in the graph indicate the number of times the wind was recorded blowing from a particular direction (±11.25°). You can move your mouse over the shaded areas for a little more interaction (t=direction, r=number of samples).


Historical Data

Data gathered from the NASA servers may be subject to corrections based on newer data. This is performed by NASA, not me. Any data that is within the last 7 data-rows is within the frame that may be updated. Any updates are automatically applied to the tables below, and all charts and derived tables (such as the record high and low temperatures) are updated accordingly.

Some tables show results after smoothing the data to remove anomolies. I have clearly marked all data that has been smoothed so there is no ambiguity. The method of smoothing out the anomolies is simple and efficient, although not guaranteed to remove them all. Essentially, if a temperature reading is ≥±10°C from the previous valid reading, it's probably an anomoly and is rejected.

A more thorough breakdown of records in °C and °F can be found after the Temperature Over Time Chart.

Records (after smoothing out anomolies)
Temp Date Sol Season Season Start Season End
Highest 1.6 C June 3, 2020 540 Autumn Apr 8, 2020 Sep 1, 2020
Lowest -105.6 C June 14, 2019 195 Spring Mar 23, 2019 Oct 7, 2019

Time Air Temperature (°C) Wind Speed (m/s) Pressure (Pa)
Date Sol Max Avg Min Max Avg Min Direction Max Avg Min
Dec. 3, 2020 719 - - - - - - n/a 749.1 718.1 686.3
Dec. 2, 2020 718 - - - - - - n/a 749.8 722.4 688.4
Dec. 1, 2020 717 - - - - - - n/a 751.6 722.5 689

Time Air Temperature (°C) Wind Speed (m/s) Pressure (Pa)
Date Sol Max Avg Min Max Avg Min Direction Max Avg Min
Nov. 30, 2020 716 - - - - - - n/a 749.2 723.4 689.5
Nov. 29, 2020 715 - - - - - - n/a 747.7 724.9 691
Nov. 27, 2020 713 - - - - - - n/a 748.2 725.2 690.5
Nov. 26, 2020 712 - - - - - - n/a 749 724.6 688.8
Nov. 25, 2020 711 - - - - - - n/a 749.9 723.4 683.4
Nov. 24, 2020 710 - - - - - - n/a 756.7 723.9 681.3
Nov. 23, 2020 709 - - - - - - n/a 760.7 734.3 678.8
Nov. 22, 2020 708 -8.2 C -62.2 C -93.2 C 20.2 6 0.2 W 769.2 733.7 675.5
Nov. 21, 2020 707 -7.6 C -66 C -93.1 C 16 5.3 0.2 W 768.4 736.4 674.4
Nov. 20, 2020 706 -11.3 C -60.3 C -93.1 C 13.1 4.4 0.2 WNW 764.3 731.1 678.5
Nov. 19, 2020 705 -9.1 C -61.9 C -94.6 C 16.4 4.4 0.2 WNW 766.2 732 686.9
Nov. 18, 2020 704 -8.2 C -62.8 C -97.1 C 14.1 4.4 0.2 W 766.3 735.1 693.9
Nov. 17, 2020 703 -8.9 C -62.2 C -96 C 21.2 5.8 0.2 W 768 737.9 698.8
Nov. 15, 2020 701 - - - - - - n/a 755.2 730.3 704.7
Nov. 14, 2020 700 -13.2 C -62.9 C -96.6 C 20.9 5.7 0.2 WNW 760.9 735.9 708.7
Nov. 13, 2020 699 -9.9 C -62.7 C -97.8 C 14.2 4.2 0.1 WNW 753.6 731.8 705.2
Nov. 12, 2020 698 -14.6 C -69.5 C -96.4 C 23.7 6.2 0.4 W 757.1 736.8 708.1
Nov. 11, 2020 697 - - - - - - n/a 754.1 732.9 710.5
Nov. 10, 2020 696 - - - - - - n/a 756.1 734.6 706.9
Nov. 9, 2020 695 -11.8 C -60 C -96.4 C - - - n/a 757.1 738 713.9
Nov. 8, 2020 694 -9.5 C -56.8 C -104.7 C - - - n/a 753.7 734.6 710
Nov. 7, 2020 693 -12.4 C -67 C -96.7 C 21.9 6.4 0.3 WNW 759.1 738.6 713.2
Nov. 6, 2020 692 -10.5 C -66 C -96.8 C 21.4 5.7 0.2 W 754.6 737.1 711.6
Nov. 5, 2020 691 -16.1 C -61.3 C -97 C 22 7.5 0.8 WNW 758.4 740.8 713.1
Nov. 4, 2020 690 -14.8 C -66.7 C -96.8 C 22.7 7.5 0.9 WNW 756.5 742.1 715.2
Nov. 3, 2020 689 -18.4 C -56.2 C -96.8 C 25.7 8.5 1.3 WNW 763.6 742.6 716
Nov. 2, 2020 688 -12.8 C -67.3 C -95.7 C 17.2 5.5 0.2 WNW 758.6 743.7 717.5
Nov. 1, 2020 687 - - - - - - n/a 755.6 738.6 714

Time Air Temperature (°C) Wind Speed (m/s) Pressure (Pa)
Date Sol Max Avg Min Max Avg Min Direction Max Avg Min
Oct. 31, 2020 686 - - - - - - n/a 756.9 743.5 717.9
Oct. 30, 2020 685 -11.9 C -57.7 C -97.2 C 18.3 6 0.2 WNW 757.6 739.5 715.8
Oct. 29, 2020 684 -17.9 C -62.4 C -95.5 C - - - n/a 762.1 744.1 718.7
Oct. 25, 2020 681 -4.4 C -62.4 C -95.4 C 18.6 5.6 0.2 WNW 760.2 743.6 718.5
Oct. 20, 2020 676 -16.5 C -66.8 C -96.9 C 26.9 8.9 1.1 W 767.1 750.3 722.6
Oct. 19, 2020 675 -15.9 C -63.3 C -96.9 C 22.5 7.3 1.1 WNW 768.8 751.5 722.8
Oct. 18, 2020 674 -7.4 C -57.6 C -96 C 18.5 5.4 0.2 WNW 765 746.6 722.4
Oct. 17, 2020 673 -9.9 C -62.4 C -96.7 C 18.9 5.6 0.2 WNW 766.4 747.7 721.1
Oct. 16, 2020 672 -6.5 C -67.5 C -96.8 C 16 4.7 0.2 WNW 766.2 749.1 723.3
Oct. 15, 2020 671 -8.5 C -62.8 C -96 C 19.1 5.7 0.2 WNW 764.1 748.3 722.8
Oct. 14, 2020 670 -15.8 C -60.7 C -95.8 C 23.1 7.9 0.5 WNW 771.5 750.9 723.9
Oct. 13, 2020 669 -15.9 C -64.6 C -95.6 C 22.3 8 0.5 WNW 770.5 755.7 724.3
Oct. 12, 2020 668 -15 C -59.9 C -96.8 C 22.1 7.4 0.3 WNW 770.3 753 727.1
Oct. 11, 2020 667 -9.2 C -65 C -96.8 C 18.1 6 0.3 W 768.7 754.1 726.2
Oct. 10, 2020 666 -14.1 C -59.6 C -96.5 C 20.4 6.1 0.3 WNW 771.2 749.6 726.2
Oct. 9, 2020 665 -10.8 C -65.6 C -95.9 C 15 5.3 0.3 WNW 766.4 751.2 728
Oct. 8, 2020 664 -10.8 C -57.4 C -96.4 C 18.6 6 0.2 WNW 771.6 753.2 726.9
Oct. 7, 2020 663 -16.6 C -62.4 C -96.7 C 23.4 8 0.8 WNW 775.2 756.9 728.8
Oct. 6, 2020 662 -15.3 C -62.9 C -97.1 C 22.5 8 0.3 WNW 777.4 758.5 729.5
Oct. 5, 2020 661 -13.4 C -61.4 C -96.5 C 21.6 6.6 0.2 WNW 775.5 757.7 731.4
Oct. 4, 2020 660 -10.7 C -63.2 C -96 C 17.2 5.3 0.3 WNW 773.8 755.8 728.2
Oct. 3, 2020 659 -10.8 C -62.8 C -96.5 C 16.2 5.1 0.2 WNW 777.9 757.9 729
Oct. 2, 2020 658 -14.6 C -64.2 C -96.6 C 21.6 5.4 0.2 WNW 776.3 758 730
Oct. 1, 2020 657 -18 C -63.3 C -97.2 C 23.1 7.9 0.5 WNW 781.2 760.2 731.9

Time Air Temperature (°C) Wind Speed (m/s) Pressure (Pa)
Date Sol Max Avg Min Max Avg Min Direction Max Avg Min
Sep. 30, 2020 656 -19.6 C -63.9 C -97.3 C 21.9 8.6 1.1 WNW 783 765.1 735.9
Sep. 29, 2020 655 -18 C -63.5 C -95.3 C 21.2 8.6 1.5 WNW 783.3 766.1 734.2
Sep. 28, 2020 654 -15.5 C -62.9 C -95.8 C 20.8 6.8 0.8 WNW 779.4 763.2 735.7
Sep. 27, 2020 653 -10.6 C -68.3 C -96.3 C 18 6 0.2 W 780.8 763.7 735.6
Sep. 26, 2020 652 -15.6 C -63.4 C -96.1 C 18.6 6.4 0.3 WNW 779.1 762.2 734.8
Sep. 25, 2020 651 -15.9 C -62 C -96.7 C 20.3 7 0.2 WNW 781.5 764.7 736.8
Sep. 24, 2020 650 -17.5 C -62.3 C -95.9 C 22.8 8.3 1.6 WNW 785.6 768.2 737.7
Sep. 23, 2020 649 -19.2 C -63.1 C -95.7 C 22 8.4 1.6 WNW 785.1 768 739.1
Sep. 22, 2020 648 -16.9 C -59.4 C -97.1 C 20.3 8 1.9 WNW 786.8 766.5 739.6
Sep. 21, 2020 647 -14.9 C -56.3 C -96.1 C 18.5 7 0.8 WNW 785 764.7 738.2
Sep. 19, 2020 646 -15.6 C -55.5 C -96 C 18.9 7.2 0.8 WNW 785.7 764.8 738.1
Sep. 18, 2020 645 -15.2 C -67.4 C -95.6 C 19.3 7.1 0.2 WNW 787.4 770.7 740.8
Sep. 17, 2020 644 -14.3 C -69 C -96 C 18.7 6.2 0.2 WNW 785.7 769.5 738.8
Sep. 16, 2020 643 -15 C -62 C -95.7 C 19.9 7.2 0.5 WNW 790.2 768.6 738.8
Sep. 15, 2020 642 -15.6 C -62.3 C -94.7 C 19 7.2 0.7 WNW 788.9 769.8 740.2
Sep. 14, 2020 641 -12.6 C -62.2 C -95.4 C 16.8 5.9 0.2 WNW 791.1 770.3 739.8
Sep. 13, 2020 640 -7.4 C -68.5 C -94.8 C 15.9 5 0.2 WNW 791.2 773.3 741.9
Sep. 12, 2020 639 -10.4 C -61 C -95.6 C 16.6 5.1 0.2 WNW 791.4 771 740.6
Sep. 11, 2020 638 -14.9 C -62.5 C -94.7 C - - - n/a 791.2 771.6 741.5
Sep. 9, 2020 636 -17.1 C -61.5 C -94.6 C 20.9 7.2 0.5 WNW 793.1 774.2 743.4
Sep. 8, 2020 635 -16.5 C -62.3 C -95.2 C 20.7 7.8 0.5 WNW 795.7 776.2 745.1
Sep. 7, 2020 634 -16.1 C -61.1 C -94.6 C 17.9 6.7 0.5 WNW 793.7 775.8 746.4

Time Air Temperature (°C) Wind Speed (m/s) Pressure (Pa)
Date Sol Max Avg Min Max Avg Min Direction Max Avg Min
Aug. 15, 2020 611 -15.9 C -61.3 C -93.8 C 18 7.3 0.3 WNW 807.5 788.3 756
Aug. 13, 2020 610 -16.8 C -62.4 C -93.8 C 16.6 6.7 0.2 WNW 809 790.6 754.8
Aug. 12, 2020 609 -18.2 C -62.2 C -93.4 C 20.1 7.8 0.5 WNW 810.8 790.4 754.2
Aug. 11, 2020 608 -19.5 C -62.5 C -93 C 23.8 8.5 1.8 WNW 811.9 791 754.3
Aug. 10, 2020 607 -18.9 C -64.3 C -93.1 C 21.4 8.2 1.6 WNW 809.8 788.4 753.8
Aug. 9, 2020 606 -18.7 C -61.7 C -94.1 C 23.9 8 0.8 WNW 809.7 790.7 753
Aug. 8, 2020 605 -18.4 C -65.7 C -92.7 C 22.5 8.3 1.9 WNW 811.5 790.4 756.8
Aug. 7, 2020 604 -16.3 C -57.8 C -91.5 C 20.2 8.2 0.5 WNW 810 788.5 756.2
Aug. 6, 2020 603 -42.4 C -70.9 C -114 C 17.2 6.6 0.2 WNW 811.1 791.6 754.7
Aug. 5, 2020 602 -9.5 C -58.3 C -91.5 C 17 5.3 0.2 WNW 807.1 787.1 753.7
Aug. 4, 2020 601 -10.6 C -57.9 C -91.6 C 16 5.4 0.2 WNW 809.4 783.8 751.6
Aug. 3, 2020 600 -5.7 C -55 C -107.6 C 15.2 5.6 0.2 W 809.1 788.1 753.8
Aug. 2, 2020 599 -42.6 C -75.9 C -91.8 C 15.6 5.1 0.2 WNW 806.3 787.5 751.1
Aug. 1, 2020 598 -15.1 C -61 C -91.6 C 19.2 6.7 0.2 WNW 804 784.9 751.6

Time Air Temperature (°C) Wind Speed (m/s) Pressure (Pa)
Date Sol Max Avg Min Max Avg Min Direction Max Avg Min
July 31, 2020 597 -16.9 C -61.9 C -91 C 20.2 7.8 0.7 WNW 807.5 787.8 753.6
July 30, 2020 596 -15.4 C -65.1 C -90.7 C 19.9 7.7 0.3 WNW 805.8 790.3 755.4
July 29, 2020 595 -12.9 C -66.3 C -91.9 C 18.2 7 0.5 WNW 807.9 790.9 753.7
July 28, 2020 594 -16.6 C -59.5 C -91.8 C 20.7 7.8 1.6 WNW 806.5 785.1 751.5
July 27, 2020 593 -16 C -61 C -91.8 C 18.8 6.7 0.2 WNW 806.3 784.8 751.2
July 26, 2020 592 -15.1 C -62 C -92 C 17.8 7 0.3 WNW 805.9 787.1 750.9
July 25, 2020 591 -15.5 C -60.3 C -91.2 C 19 7.5 0.2 WNW 808.7 786.4 750.6
July 24, 2020 590 -13.8 C -59.5 C -90 C 17.9 6.6 0.2 WNW 807.6 785.5 748.7
July 23, 2020 589 -13.1 C -57.8 C -90.1 C 16.1 5.6 0.2 WNW 806.8 783.5 747.9
July 22, 2020 588 -11 C -59.8 C -89.2 C 18.9 5.6 0.2 WNW 805.1 783.7 745.4
July 21, 2020 587 -9.8 C -60.4 C -89.2 C 14.1 5 0.2 WNW 804.3 780.7 744.7
July 20, 2020 586 -7.1 C -59.5 C -131.8 C 13.2 3.8 0.2 WNW 804.6 782.1 742.3
July 19, 2020 585 -12 C -54.9 C -89.2 C 18.9 5.8 0.2 W 804 779.2 742.7
July 18, 2020 584 -12.3 C -57.4 C -89.1 C 16 5.8 0.2 WNW 805 780.7 742.9
July 17, 2020 583 -7.2 C -63 C -89 C 13.4 5.2 0.2 WNW 802.7 779 741.3
July 16, 2020 582 -4.6 C -59.1 C -89.1 C 13.7 4.7 0.2 WNW 800.9 779.3 740.5
July 15, 2020 581 -10.1 C -56.6 C -88.7 C 16.2 6 0.2 WNW 802.4 777.1 740
July 14, 2020 580 -8.4 C -59.6 C -88.8 C 15.4 6 0.2 WNW 801.1 776.7 740.3
July 13, 2020 579 -3.7 C -57.4 C -88.5 C 14.8 4.8 0.2 WNW 798.3 776 737.9
July 12, 2020 578 -5.2 C -60.1 C -88.3 C 13.4 4.9 0.2 WNW 799.1 776.5 736.6

Time Air Temperature (°C) Wind Speed (m/s) Pressure (Pa)
Date Sol Max Avg Min Max Avg Min Direction Max Avg Min
June 29, 2020 566 -4.2 C -57.1 C -88.4 C 16.8 5.1 0.2 WNW 800.6 766.9 721.1
June 28, 2020 565 -5 C -56.4 C -89.6 C 17.6 4.5 0.3 WNW 797.1 765 721.1
June 27, 2020 564 -4.3 C -56.4 C -89.3 C 15.4 4.7 0.2 WNW 794.3 766.9 724.3
June 26, 2020 563 -3.9 C -53.6 C -89.5 C 18.5 5 0.2 WNW 789.5 758.2 724.3
June 25, 2020 562 -13.3 C -59.3 C -89.5 C 23 7 0.5 WNW 795.2 767.7 729.5
June 24, 2020 561 -2.9 C -56.2 C -89.7 C 17.8 5.4 0.2 WNW 783.3 761.3 729
June 23, 2020 560 -11.5 C -59.5 C -91.4 C 19.4 6.4 0.2 WNW 790.2 763.5 726.2
June 22, 2020 559 -2.8 C -57.9 C -90.7 C 14.8 4.6 0.2 WNW 781.5 757.3 725.9
June 21, 2020 558 -4.9 C -58.8 C -91 C 17.4 4.6 0.2 WNW 782.2 756.4 721.1
June 20, 2020 557 -1 C -62 C -92.1 C 13.6 3.8 0.2 WNW 772.2 751.8 719.7
June 19, 2020 556 -6.5 C -58.8 C -90.8 C 21.3 6.4 0.2 WNW 774.5 748 719.5
June 18, 2020 555 -3.5 C -55.3 C -91 C 19.3 5.4 0.2 WNW 770.1 749.7 720.4
June 17, 2020 554 -4 C -57 C -92.4 C 17.1 5.7 0.2 WNW 768.1 750.5 715.3
June 16, 2020 553 0 C -56.2 C -91.2 C 17.1 5.4 0.2 WNW 768.9 749.3 719.4
June 15, 2020 552 -1.9 C -56.1 C -91.2 C 15.9 4.5 0.2 WNW 765.1 743.8 711.9
June 14, 2020 551 -1.3 C -58 C -92.3 C 16.3 4.2 0.2 WNW 764.4 743.6 711
June 13, 2020 550 0.9 C -59.1 C -92.1 C 20.7 4.5 0.2 WNW 763.4 744.5 710.8
June 12, 2020 549 -1.5 C -61.9 C -91.9 C 18.2 4.2 0.2 SW 760.7 738.7 708.9
June 11, 2020 548 -2.8 C -57.6 C -91.2 C 20.1 4.9 0.2 WNW 763.2 741.1 711.5
June 10, 2020 547 -1 C -58.2 C -92.2 C 14.2 4.2 0.2 WNW 759.6 739.6 712.5
June 9, 2020 546 -6.6 C -64.9 C -92.7 C 25.1 6.4 0.2 WNW 758.6 741.1 709.5
June 8, 2020 545 -4.9 C -58.3 C -92.5 C 20.3 5.8 0.2 WNW 754.8 738.7 715
June 7, 2020 544 -6.1 C -66.9 C -92 C 22.9 6.2 0.4 WNW 752.9 736.5 708.9
June 6, 2020 543 -6.6 C -53 C -92.9 C 21 7.2 0.3 WNW 750.5 735.9 710.6
June 5, 2020 542 0 -62.7 C -92.2 C 18.3 5 0.3 WNW 746.5 727 703.3
June 4, 2020 541 -1.6 C -55.8 C -91.8 C 17.7 5.1 0.2 WNW 747.8 728.1 702.3
June 3, 2020 540 1.6 C -55.5 C -92.2 C 20.3 4.9 0.3 WNW 745.5 725.5 700.6
June 2, 2020 539 -4.5 C -53.9 C -92.5 C 21.1 6.6 0.3 WNW 746.6 724.7 699.6
June 1, 2020 538 -3.5 C -57 C -92 C 17.8 5.7 0.2 WNW 745.3 723.9 699.7

Time Air Temperature (°C) Wind Speed (m/s) Pressure (Pa)
Date Sol Max Avg Min Max Avg Min Direction Max Avg Min
May 30, 2020 537 -0.8 C -54.6 C -92.7 C 19.5 4.7 0.3 WNW 741.7 719.2 695.7
May 29, 2020 536 -7.3 C -62.9 C -91.5 C 20 5.9 0.3 SW 743.6 724.2 695.1
May 28, 2020 535 -2.7 C -54 C -91.3 C 16.7 5.1 0.3 SW 739.9 719.3 695.7
May 27, 2020 534 0.9 C -57.4 C -92.8 C 18.8 4.6 0.2 WNW 738.9 716.5 690.7
May 26, 2020 533 -6.7 C -56.5 C -92.8 C 21.3 6 0.3 WNW 738.8 717.3 692.1
May 25, 2020 532 -1.1 C -54.6 C -93.1 C 17.7 4.8 0.3 SW 735.2 714 691
May 24, 2020 531 -6.1 C -57.3 C -93.5 C 21.7 5.8 0.3 WNW 735.1 713.6 688.4
May 23, 2020 530 0.4 C -64.7 C -92.6 C 17.4 4.7 0.3 SW 732.7 713.8 689
May 22, 2020 529 0.6 C -57 C -93.2 C 15.5 4.6 0.2 WNW 731 708.9 683.4
May 21, 2020 528 -5.3 C -55 C -93.5 C 23.6 6.3 0.3 WNW 731.8 709.5 686.4
May 20, 2020 527 0.8 C -55.9 C -93 C 18.9 4.5 0.3 WNW 725.5 707.5 684.8
May 19, 2020 526 -1.8 C -56.4 C -94 C 19.6 4.9 0.3 WNW 728.1 705.2 681.2
May 18, 2020 525 -0.4 C -57.2 C -93.6 C 18.5 4.8 0.3 WNW 727.7 707.3 681.1
May 17, 2020 524 0.5 C -54.7 C -92.5 C 15.3 4.6 0.3 SW 724.9 701.6 677.7
May 16, 2020 523 -2.2 C -57.4 C -93.2 C 18.2 4.8 0.2 WNW 724.2 703.2 676
May 15, 2020 522 -1.7 C -56.6 C -93.2 C 18.8 4.9 0.2 WNW 722.5 699.9 675.8
May 14, 2020 521 -1.1 C -64.8 C -93.2 C 18.3 4.5 0.2 SW 720.2 700.3 672.2
May 13, 2020 520 -1.4 C -56.3 C -92.9 C 19.5 4.7 0.2 SW 720.4 695.9 672
May 12, 2020 519 -0.3 C -62.7 C -92.3 C 15.8 4.5 0.2 SW 718 697.7 670.7
May 11, 2020 518 -0.9 C -55.1 C -93.3 C 16 4.7 0.3 SW 717.5 692.2 667.3
May 10, 2020 517 1.2 C -56.4 C -92.6 C 17.5 4.4 0.2 SW 716.1 692.2 668.2
May 9, 2020 516 1.4 C -54.8 C -93.2 C 13.8 4.5 0.2 SW 714.2 689.7 665.4
May 8, 2020 515 -4.4 C -58 C -93.8 C 19 4.5 0.2 SW 714.3 687.9 663.8
May 7, 2020 514 -2.8 C -51.7 C -92.3 C 16.8 4.5 0.3 WNW 712.5 687.7 663.4
May 6, 2020 513 -0.1 C -56.1 C -93 C 16.2 4.6 0.2 SW 711.1 683.7 660.2
May 5, 2020 512 -3.1 C -56.4 C -92.9 C 19.2 4.7 0.3 SW 709.1 683.9 659.2
May 4, 2020 511 -3.6 C -57.8 C -93.2 C 16.8 4.7 0.3 WNW 707.8 682.9 658.1
May 3, 2020 510 -1.5 C -57.6 C -93 C 16 4.5 0.2 WNW 706.5 681.5 656.5
May 2, 2020 509 -2.2 C -57.7 C -93.2 C 17.9 4.8 0.2 SW 709.3 681.1 656
May 1, 2020 508 -2.4 C -57.9 C -92.2 C 15.8 4.5 0.2 WNW 708.5 680 654.7

Time Air Temperature (°C) Wind Speed (m/s) Pressure (Pa)
Date Sol Max Avg Min Max Avg Min Direction Max Avg Min
Apr. 30, 2020 507 -2.4 C -55.3 C -92.1 C 18.2 4.8 0.2 SW 707.2 677.8 653.2
Apr. 29, 2020 506 -3.7 C -58.1 C -93.5 C 15.6 4.5 0.2 WNW 705.1 677.2 651.7
Apr. 28, 2020 505 -6.6 C -65.1 C -93.8 C 13.2 4.2 0.4 WNW 689.2 669.9 652
Apr. 27, 2020 504 -6.7 C -64.1 C -93.6 C 15 4.6 0.3 SW 700.5 675.9 650.9
Apr. 26, 2020 503 -4.9 C -57.2 C -93.8 C 17.5 4.6 0.2 WNW 700 673.4 650.2
Apr. 25, 2020 502 -4.9 C -58.3 C -94 C 14.8 4.5 0.2 SW 699.6 673.2 650.1
Apr. 23, 2020 501 -4.3 C -61.2 C -93.5 C 18.8 4.5 0.2 SW 697.5 669.1 647.3
Apr. 22, 2020 500 -3.5 C -58.9 C -93.8 C 19.4 4.4 0.2 WNW 697.2 669.3 645.8
Apr. 21, 2020 499 -3.6 C -60.4 C -94.4 C 17 4.5 0.3 SW 693.3 668.5 645.4
Apr. 20, 2020 498 -5.6 C -58.9 C -94.3 C 17 4.6 0.3 SW 694.2 665.9 645.9
Apr. 19, 2020 497 -4.1 C -59.2 C -94.3 C 16.6 4.4 0.2 SW 690.2 666.6 644.1
Apr. 18, 2020 496 -6.2 C -61.7 C -94.6 C 15.7 4.6 0.3 SW 688.4 664.8 641.4
Apr. 17, 2020 495 -4.2 C -59.1 C -94 C 16.7 4.6 0.2 WNW 689 663.2 640.2
Apr. 16, 2020 494 -3.7 C -59.4 C -95.4 C 16.5 4.6 0.3 WNW 687.9 662.6 639.3
Apr. 15, 2020 493 -5.3 C -59.6 C -94.8 C 17.1 4.8 0.2 WNW 688.6 661.3 637.3
Apr. 14, 2020 492 -5.5 C -59.4 C -94.4 C 14.9 4.8 0.2 WNW 689.8 658.5 636.4
Apr. 13, 2020 491 -3.6 C -59.1 C -93.2 C 16.9 4.8 0.2 WNW 688.7 660.3 635.2
Apr. 12, 2020 490 -4.9 C -60.6 C -94.3 C 15.3 4.8 0.3 WNW 687.5 659.3 634
Apr. 11, 2020 489 -6.5 C -54.6 C -93.5 C 17.4 4.8 0.3 WNW 685.4 658.6 634.1
Apr. 10, 2020 488 -19.7 C -70.8 C -93.8 C 13 4.6 0.3 WNW 685.2 662.8 634.6
Apr. 9, 2020 487 -6.6 C -58.3 C -93.5 C 15.7 4.9 0.3 WNW 681.1 655.4 632.3
Apr. 8, 2020 486 -5.3 C -65.3 C -94.7 C 17 5 0.2 SW 680.8 657.3 630.7
Apr. 7, 2020 485 -7 C -59.4 C -93.4 C 21.4 5.1 0.3 WNW 678.6 654.5 630
Apr. 6, 2020 484 -7 C -58.4 C -94.3 C 18.3 5.1 0.2 WNW 679.3 652.9 627.9
Apr. 5, 2020 483 -8.4 C -59.8 C -94.8 C 20 5.4 0.2 WNW 679.1 652.3 626
Apr. 4, 2020 482 -6.1 C -62.3 C -93.1 C 17.2 4.4 0.2 WNW 679.2 653.1 625.4
Apr. 3, 2020 481 -5.9 C -59.8 C -93.9 C 18.3 5.3 0.3 WNW 679 650.4 624.2
Apr. 2, 2020 480 -6.7 C -65.4 C -93 C 17.2 5.5 0.3 WNW 678.1 651.6 623.5
Apr. 1, 2020 479 -8 C -66 C -93.8 C 19.6 5.6 0.2 SW 676.7 651.1 622.6

Time Air Temperature (°C) Wind Speed (m/s) Pressure (Pa)
Date Sol Max Avg Min Max Avg Min Direction Max Avg Min
Mar. 31, 2020 478 -8.5 C -59.6 C -93.3 C 18.2 5.7 0.2 WNW 676.8 647.2 622.4
Mar. 30, 2020 477 -6.5 C -59.4 C -93 C 19.3 5.7 0.3 WNW 675.2 646.7 621.6
Mar. 29, 2020 476 -7.2 C -57.2 C -92.7 C 18.8 5.9 0.3 WNW 673.1 646.3 620
Mar. 28, 2020 475 -7.7 C -77.3 C -94.6 C 19.5 5.5 0.3 SSW 674.3 648 619.3
Mar. 27, 2020 474 -7.3 C -65.7 C -94 C 20 5.4 0.2 WNW 672.8 644.3 618.3
Mar. 26, 2020 473 -8.4 C -60.8 C -94.1 C 21.5 5.6 0.2 WNW 671.7 642.7 616.3
Mar. 25, 2020 472 -7.8 C -52.9 C -94.2 C 20.2 5.9 0.2 WNW 669.9 640 616
Mar. 24, 2020 471 -7.1 C -58.4 C -94.9 C 21.1 5.6 0.2 WNW 670 640.8 614.6
Mar. 23, 2020 470 -7.7 C -66.6 C -95.6 C 20.6 5.7 0.2 WNW 668 640.1 613.8
Mar. 9, 2020 457 -9.1 C -59.1 C -95.7 C 21 6 0.2 SSE 661.1 633.5 604.9
Mar. 8, 2020 456 -9.6 C -61.5 C -94.6 C 20.2 5.8 0.2 SSE 661.1 633.9 604.4
Mar. 7, 2020 455 -12.8 C -64 C -95.4 C 20.7 5.3 0.3 WNW 661.6 632.3 605.5
Mar. 6, 2020 454 -12.5 C -61.7 C -95.9 C 25.2 5.7 0.2 SSE 660.3 633.9 606.5
Mar. 5, 2020 453 -10.8 C -59.8 C -95.1 C 21.4 6 0.3 SSW 657.5 631.9 605.3
Mar. 4, 2020 452 -9.2 C -58.7 C -94.2 C 19.6 5.9 0.2 SSW 655.3 630.6 605.4
Mar. 3, 2020 451 -10.3 C -62.2 C -93.6 C 21.5 6.1 0.2 SSE 656.4 631.3 604.8
Mar. 2, 2020 450 -10.4 C -63.4 C -93.5 C 23 5.4 0.2 SSW 655.2 630.2 603.8
Mar. 1, 2020 449 -11.3 C -57.2 C -93.6 C 23.9 6.2 0.3 SSW 654 628.7 603.6

Time Air Temperature (°C) Wind Speed (m/s) Pressure (Pa)
Date Sol Max Avg Min Max Avg Min Direction Max Avg Min
Feb. 29, 2020 448 -8.3 C -64 C -94.1 C 23.3 5.6 0.2 SSW 652.6 628.4 603.7
Feb. 28, 2020 447 -11.1 C -59.7 C -92.6 C 20.2 5.9 0.3 WNW 653.6 630.3 603.1
Feb. 27, 2020 446 -10.9 C -57.4 C -93.6 C 20.6 5.7 0.2 WNW 654.7 629.5 603.2
Feb. 26, 2020 445 -12.8 C -65 C -92.8 C 21.1 5.4 0.3 W 653.8 630.5 601.8
Feb. 25, 2020 444 -12 C -67.2 C -93.8 C 21.2 5.8 0.2 SSW 651.4 631.2 600.2
Feb. 24, 2020 443 -12.3 C -61.3 C -94.8 C 22.2 5.9 0.2 WNW 650.9 629.2 600.2
Feb. 23, 2020 442 -10.5 C -67.2 C -94.1 C 21.1 5.4 0.2 WNW 654.9 629.9 602
Feb. 22, 2020 441 -13.5 C -62.1 C -95.1 C 21 5.5 0.2 W 655.6 629 601.1
Feb. 21, 2020 440 -13 C -64.1 C -95.2 C 23.7 6 0.2 W 654 627.2 601.5
Feb. 20, 2020 439 -9.3 C -59.3 C -94.6 C 23.2 5.8 0.2 W 650.9 627.8 601.2
Feb. 19, 2020 438 -10 C -61.3 C -95.4 C 22.5 5.5 0.3 WNW 650.9 628.7 603.2
Feb. 18, 2020 437 -9.9 C -61.8 C -94.7 C 21.6 5.9 0.3 W 652.2 630 603.4
Feb. 17, 2020 436 -10.3 C -63.2 C -94.4 C 21.5 5.6 0.3 W 652.9 628.7 602
Feb. 16, 2020 435 -10.2 C -59.5 C -93.8 C 23 7.3 0.2 SSE 652.7 629.6 600.5
Feb. 15, 2020 434 -7.3 C -57.4 C -94.5 C 22 5.6 0.2 W 652.1 627.8 602.1
Feb. 14, 2020 433 -8.9 C -61.1 C -94.2 C 21.6 6.1 0.2 W 653.6 631.1 601.9
Feb. 13, 2020 432 -9.4 C -61.3 C -94.2 C 21.1 5.9 0.2 W 652.9 631.6 601
Feb. 12, 2020 431 -11.9 C -60.4 C -93.9 C 21.6 5 0.3 W 652.1 626.9 601
Feb. 11, 2020 430 -13 C -61.2 C -93.3 C 21.6 5.9 0.2 W 651.2 628.8 600.5
Feb. 10, 2020 429 -10.4 C -59.4 C -94.8 C 26.3 6.2 0.2 W 651.1 625.4 600.6
Feb. 8, 2020 428 -8.7 C -62.1 C -91.6 C 25.4 5.9 0.3 WNW 648 628.8 602.2
Feb. 7, 2020 427 -9.8 C -60.6 C -91.7 C 25 6 0.3 WNW 647.4 627.7 600.7
Feb. 6, 2020 426 -9.1 C -66.2 C -91.6 C 22.6 5.5 0.2 WNW 648.4 630 601.2
Feb. 5, 2020 425 -11.1 C -59.6 C -90.6 C 21.3 5.5 0.2 SSE 649.8 627.7 602.2
Feb. 4, 2020 424 -12.6 C -57.5 C -91.9 C 22.9 5.7 0.2 SSE 647.4 627.4 602.4
Feb. 3, 2020 423 -9.7 C -64.2 C -92.2 C 20.5 4.5 0.2 W 645.4 627.1 602.3
Feb. 2, 2020 422 -13.1 C -50.9 C -90.2 C 22.1 6.1 0.2 SSE 646.4 624.4 602.2
Feb. 1, 2020 421 -13.8 C -56.5 C -93.1 C 21 5.4 0.3 SSE 646.1 626.8 602.7

Time Air Temperature (°C) Wind Speed (m/s) Pressure (Pa)
Date Sol Max Avg Min Max Avg Min Direction Max Avg Min
Jan. 31, 2020 420 -13.7 C -66.7 C -93.7 C 18.5 4.8 0.2 W 645.9 630.6 603.4
Jan. 30, 2020 419 -12.5 C -61.2 C -96.1 C 20.2 5.1 0.2 W 642.7 628.6 605.5
Jan. 29, 2020 418 -15.6 C -57.9 C -94.1 C 22 5.9 0.2 SSW 640.6 628 604.5
Jan. 28, 2020 417 -15.3 C -61.2 C -94 C 23.6 6 0.3 W 642 631.5 606.4
Jan. 27, 2020 416 -14.5 C -67.6 C -93.9 C 23.3 5.5 0.2 S 644.7 629.5 607.3
Jan. 26, 2020 415 -14.3 C -64 C -95.1 C 23.2 5.9 0.2 W 646.2 631.5 609.4
Jan. 25, 2020 414 -15.9 C -62.6 C -95.7 C 21.3 4.8 0.3 W 644.6 630.5 609.3
Jan. 24, 2020 413 -16 C -62.2 C -96.5 C 19.8 5.5 0.2 SSE 644.5 632 609.6
Jan. 23, 2020 412 -14.5 C -63.9 C -96.9 C 19.7 5.5 0.2 S 645.6 633 610.9
Jan. 22, 2020 411 -16.7 C -63.4 C -96.4 C 22.7 5.2 0.2 S 646 633.2 613.4
Jan. 21, 2020 410 -12.5 C -68.2 C -97.5 C 19.7 5 0.2 S 642.5 634.1 613
Jan. 20, 2020 409 -15.4 C -62.9 C -98.6 C 21 5.1 0.2 S 644.2 632.5 613.7
Jan. 19, 2020 408 -16 C -63.9 C -97.1 C 20.7 5.4 0.2 SSE 645.1 634 615.1
Jan. 18, 2020 407 -16.5 C -64.5 C -99.5 C 22.2 4.9 0.2 WNW 646.5 634 616.1
Jan. 17, 2020 406 -17.1 C -63.3 C -100 C 20.7 5.2 0.2 SSE 648.4 634.4 616
Jan. 16, 2020 405 -16.8 C -64.1 C -102.5 C 23.1 5.5 0.2 SSE 651 635.8 616.8
Jan. 15, 2020 404 -16.8 C -66 C -99.5 C 19.8 5.1 0.2 SW 652.4 636.1 617.7
Jan. 14, 2020 403 -16.9 C -62.4 C -101.3 C 21 5.7 0.2 SSE 653.5 636.9 618.2
Jan. 13, 2020 402 -16.8 C -65.5 C -100 C 21.1 5.4 0.2 SSE 653.7 637.8 618
Jan. 12, 2020 401 -17 C -64.8 C -100.2 C - - - n/a 653.3 638.3 620.8
Jan. 11, 2020 400 -15.7 C -66.6 C -99.1 C 23 6.3 0.2 SE 653.3 640.1 620.6
Jan. 10, 2020 399 -17.5 C -61.6 C -97.8 C 22.5 6.4 0.2 SE 652.7 638.2 620.8
Jan. 9, 2020 398 -16.8 C -68.7 C -100.6 C 24.4 6.7 0.2 SE 652.6 640.8 621.7
Jan. 8, 2020 397 -15.7 C -67.3 C -100.1 C 27 6.5 0.2 SE 654.1 640.3 622.6
Jan. 7, 2020 396 -18.2 C -70.8 C -100.1 C 21.9 6 0.2 SW 656.2 641.8 624.5
Jan. 6, 2020 395 -17.8 C -62.3 C -99.6 C 20.3 6.2 0.2 SE 654.8 641.1 624.8
Jan. 5, 2020 394 -17.7 C -63.3 C -99 C 23.3 6.6 0.2 SE 656.8 643.4 625
Jan. 4, 2020 393 -17.6 C -68.8 C -97.7 C 21.6 5.5 0.2 SSW 656.3 643.2 625
Jan. 2, 2020 392 -17.7 C -66 C -98.2 C 20.6 6.1 0.2 SSE 657.2 644.2 625.7
Jan. 1, 2020 391 -17.6 C -60.6 C -99 C 21.9 5.7 0.2 SE 657.2 642.9 627.5

Time Air Temperature (°C) Wind Speed (m/s) Pressure (Pa)
Date Sol Max Avg Min Max Avg Min Direction Max Avg Min
Dec. 31, 2019 390 -17.8 C -65.8 C -100.2 C 27.8 5.8 0.2 SSE 657.9 644.3 628
Dec. 30, 2019 389 -18.6 C -60.4 C -99.2 C 23.1 5.9 0.2 SSE 658.3 642.6 628.6
Dec. 29, 2019 388 -17.3 C -65.9 C -98.9 C 22.7 5.7 0.2 SSE 659.3 643.3 630.3
Dec. 28, 2019 387 -18.4 C -65.8 C -98.6 C 21 5.7 0.2 SSE 659.3 647.6 630
Dec. 27, 2019 386 -18 C -62 C -97.3 C - - - n/a 659.7 644.9 630.5
Dec. 26, 2019 385 -18.6 C -60 C -96.4 C 21.2 6.4 0.2 SSE 661.6 646.4 631.2
Dec. 25, 2019 384 -22.4 C -72.2 C -96.5 C 21.5 4.9 0.2 SSE 662 649.8 631.2
Dec. 24, 2019 383 -18.5 C -67.5 C -98.1 C 24.3 5.6 0.2 SSE 662.3 647.5 632.9
Dec. 23, 2019 382 -16.4 C -62.3 C -96.9 C 20.2 6 0.2 SSE 663.8 649 634.4
Dec. 22, 2019 381 -19.5 C -61.9 C -98 C 21.7 5.7 0.2 SSE 663.4 648 634.9
Dec. 21, 2019 380 -20.6 C -62.6 C -97.9 C 21.5 6.3 0.2 SSE 664.5 649.8 633.7
Dec. 20, 2019 379 -20 C -67.8 C -96.3 C 20.7 5.3 0.2 SSE 663.3 651.2 635.4
Dec. 19, 2019 378 -20 C -65.8 C -97.7 C 23.8 5.7 0.2 SSE 665.3 653.4 636.2
Dec. 18, 2019 377 -19.9 C -59.3 C -97.5 C 21 6.4 0.2 SSE 665.5 649.8 636.3
Dec. 17, 2019 376 -19.3 C -65.6 C -98.2 C 20.8 5.7 0.2 SSE 665.8 652.3 637.5
Dec. 16, 2019 375 -19.8 C -69.9 C -97.5 C 22.1 5.6 0.2 SW 667.5 654.7 638.4
Dec. 15, 2019 374 -21.2 C -65.4 C -97.3 C 22 5.6 0.2 SSE 668.4 654.1 639.4
Dec. 14, 2019 373 -20.1 C -71.6 C -98.1 C 19.7 5 0.2 SW 668.7 656.8 640.2
Dec. 13, 2019 372 -21.2 C -66.3 C -97.2 C 20.2 6 0.2 SSE 670.2 656.8 640.3
Dec. 12, 2019 371 -19.8 C -65.2 C -96.6 C 21 5.6 0.2 SE 671.8 657.7 641.8
Dec. 11, 2019 370 -19.5 C -69.7 C -99 C 19.6 5.1 0.2 SSE 672.1 658.2 642.8
Dec. 10, 2019 369 -21.2 C -67.6 C -98.2 C 19.7 5.3 0.2 SSE 673 659.6 644.8
Dec. 9, 2019 368 -20.9 C -66.2 C -100 C 20.9 4.9 0.2 SSE 673.8 660.4 646
Dec. 8, 2019 367 -20.9 C -71.1 C -139.9 C 21.9 5.2 0.2 SSE 672.8 661 646.1
Dec. 7, 2019 366 -20.4 C -61.5 C -98.9 C 20.4 5.6 0.2 SSE 674.7 660.9 646.4
Dec. 6, 2019 365 -21.5 C -66.9 C -98.8 C 20.2 5.1 0.2 SSW 676.5 662.5 647.2
Dec. 5, 2019 364 -20.3 C -66.6 C -99.9 C 21.7 5.3 0.2 SSE 678.1 663.5 646.6
Dec. 4, 2019 363 -21.1 C -66.4 C -99.8 C 20.3 5.3 0.2 SSE 678.8 664.5 649.5
Dec. 3, 2019 362 -21.2 C -64.2 C -98.5 C 20 5.1 0.2 SSE 679.4 665.2 650.2
Dec. 2, 2019 361 -21.2 C -66.7 C -98.2 C 18.9 5.3 0.2 SSE 682 666.3 651.1
Dec. 1, 2019 360 -20.6 C -68.3 C -100.1 C 19.9 4.9 0.2 SSE 682.3 667.5 651.7

Time Air Temperature (°C) Wind Speed (m/s) Pressure (Pa)
Date Sol Max Avg Min Max Avg Min Direction Max Avg Min
Nov. 30, 2019 359 -21.8 C -61.2 C -99.3 C 23.3 5.5 0.2 SSE 682 666.9 652.8
Nov. 29, 2019 358 -21.5 C -68.4 C -100.1 C 19.5 5 0.2 SSE 683.9 669.2 653.6
Nov. 28, 2019 357 -20.8 C -65.2 C -101 C 20.7 5.4 0.2 SSE 684.8 669.3 654.7
Nov. 27, 2019 356 -21.7 C -63.5 C -100 C 19 5.2 0.2 SSE 685.3 669 655.3
Nov. 25, 2019 355 -23.2 C -65.4 C -99.6 C 19.8 5.4 0.2 SSE 686.5 671.8 655.3
Nov. 24, 2019 354 -22.6 C -73 C -99.7 C 23.9 4.9 0.2 S 688.4 675.2 657
Nov. 23, 2019 353 -23.3 C -62.1 C -100.6 C 22 6.2 0.2 SE 687.6 672.2 657.3
Nov. 22, 2019 352 -22 C -68.2 C -100.7 C 23.7 5.6 0.2 SE 688 674.1 657.7
Nov. 21, 2019 351 -22.6 C -66 C -100.4 C 23.7 5.7 0.2 SW 689.9 674.9 659.5
Nov. 20, 2019 350 -23.2 C -71.4 C -103 C 20.7 5 0.1 SSE 691.4 678.8 660.9
Nov. 19, 2019 349 -22.3 C -68.4 C -103.2 C 18.4 4.8 0.2 SSE 692.7 678.1 662.4
Nov. 18, 2019 348 -23.2 C -74.2 C -102.5 C 18.9 4.7 0.2 SW 694.6 680.8 661.9
Nov. 17, 2019 347 -23.7 C -72.5 C -102 C 19.6 4.5 0.2 SSE 695.1 681.4 663.9
Nov. 16, 2019 346 -23.5 C -71 C -101.5 C 20 4.8 0.2 SSE 694.8 682.6 661.3
Nov. 15, 2019 345 -23.9 C -68.1 C -100.4 C 20.2 4.8 0.1 SSE 696.7 680.4 664.2
Nov. 14, 2019 344 -23.3 C -67.1 C -99.9 C 18.9 5.3 0.2 SSE 697.1 681.4 664.6
Nov. 13, 2019 343 -23.1 C -71.1 C -100.8 C 20.8 5.2 0.1 SSE 698.6 685.4 665.8
Nov. 12, 2019 342 -23.3 C -73.1 C -99.9 C 20.5 4.7 0.2 SW 700.3 686.4 667.6
Nov. 11, 2019 341 -23.1 C -66.9 C -100.2 C 21.7 5.6 0.2 SSE 701 684 667.8
Nov. 10, 2019 340 -24.4 C -70.8 C -101 C 20.4 5.3 0.2 SSE 702.5 687.9 669.1
Nov. 9, 2019 339 -23.4 C -64 C -99.9 C 20.8 5.1 0.2 SSE 701.9 689 670.6
Nov. 8, 2019 338 -24 C -68.6 C -102.5 C 19.6 5.1 0.2 SSE 703.5 688.3 670.4
Nov. 7, 2019 337 -24 C -68.8 C -101.8 C 21.2 4.9 0.2 SSE 705.3 689.3 671.8
Nov. 6, 2019 336 -24 C -68.2 C -101.4 C 18.7 4.7 0.2 SSE 706.9 691.1 674.3
Nov. 5, 2019 335 -24.3 C -68.6 C -100.6 C 19.9 5 0.2 SSE 709.1 691.8 674
Nov. 4, 2019 334 -23.8 C -73.4 C -100 C 19.9 4.5 0.2 SSW 710.3 695.4 674.5
Nov. 3, 2019 333 -25.8 C -69.4 C -100.8 C 18 4.7 0.2 SSW 710.7 694.1 676.9
Nov. 2, 2019 332 -25.2 C -70.5 C -99.8 C 18.7 4.1 0.2 SSW 709.7 694.5 676.4
Nov. 1, 2019 331 -24.6 C -66.9 C -100.9 C 18.5 5 0.2 SSE 711.4 693.8 676.9

Time Air Temperature (°C) Wind Speed (m/s) Pressure (Pa)
Date Sol Max Avg Min Max Avg Min Direction Max Avg Min
Oct. 31, 2019 330 -24.8 C -67.3 C -101.8 C 20.8 4.9 0.2 SSE 712.1 695.6 677.2
Oct. 30, 2019 329 -25 C -72.7 C -101.5 C 19.2 4.6 0.2 SW 714.8 698.9 679.3
Oct. 29, 2019 328 -25.2 C -70.3 C -102.3 C 18.3 4.9 0.2 SSE 715.2 696.6 679.7
Oct. 28, 2019 327 -25.3 C -69.3 C -102.6 C 19.6 4.9 0.2 SSE 716 699.7 681.4
Oct. 27, 2019 326 -23.7 C -63.2 C -101.4 C 18.2 5.2 0.2 SSE 717.8 698.3 683.9
Oct. 26, 2019 325 -24 C -68 C -102 C 19.1 5 0.2 SSE 717.2 702.9 684
Oct. 25, 2019 324 -24.8 C -69.1 C -102.4 C 23 5.4 0.2 SE 718.3 702.6 684.9
Oct. 24, 2019 323 -25.5 C -69 C -102.9 C 19.1 4.6 0.1 SE 719.6 703.8 686.4
Oct. 23, 2019 322 -25.9 C -69.7 C -102.1 C 20.6 5.5 0.2 SE 721.7 705.6 687.6
Oct. 22, 2019 321 -24.6 C -71.6 C -102.9 C 18.6 4.4 0.1 SSE 722.3 705.9 687.9
Oct. 21, 2019 320 -25.6 C -70 C -102.4 C 18.5 4.7 0.1 SSE 725.2 705.2 689.2
Oct. 19, 2019 319 -25.5 C -70.1 C -101.5 C 18.4 4.7 0.1 SSE 724.4 709.1 691.6
Oct. 18, 2019 318 -24.6 C -77.3 C -102.6 C 18.2 5.1 0.2 SSE 724.7 711.4 690.4
Oct. 17, 2019 317 -26.2 C -66.5 C -103.2 C 22.2 5.6 0.1 SSE 726.7 708.6 691.5
Oct. 16, 2019 316 -25.7 C -69.5 C -101.8 C 18.2 4.7 0.2 SSE 727.8 711.2 692.9
Oct. 15, 2019 315 -24.3 C -70.4 C -101.6 C 20.4 4.9 0.2 SSE 728.6 712.5 694.6
Oct. 14, 2019 314 -24.8 C -70.2 C -102.8 C 19.7 5.1 0.2 SSE 731.7 713 695.7
Oct. 13, 2019 313 -27.2 C -68.7 C -101.4 C 22.5 4.9 0.2 SSE 732.6 715.4 696.6
Oct. 12, 2019 312 -26 C -69 C -100.4 C 19.5 5.1 0.2 SSW 732.1 715.6 697.9
Oct. 11, 2019 311 -26.4 C -75 C -101.1 C 19.1 4.4 0.2 SSW 732.3 718.2 697.7
Oct. 10, 2019 310 -26.6 C -69.6 C -102.2 C 19.1 5 0.1 SSE 735.3 719.3 700.6
Oct. 9, 2019 309 -26.2 C -65.9 C -102.3 C 18.9 5 0.2 SSE 735.4 718 702.5
Oct. 8, 2019 308 -25.6 C -70.7 C -102.1 C 18.1 4.7 0.2 SSE 737.1 721.2 703.3
Oct. 7, 2019 307 -26.8 C -75.4 C -102 C 18.4 4.2 0.2 SSW 739.7 724.2 704.6
Oct. 6, 2019 306 -25.7 C -72.7 C -102.7 C 17.1 4.4 0.1 SSE 740.8 721.5 706.1
Oct. 5, 2019 305 -27.3 C -71.2 C -104.1 C 22.2 5 0.1 SSE 738.4 722.5 708.7
Oct. 4, 2019 304 -25.9 C -69 C -104.3 C 18.2 4.8 0.1 SSE 741.4 724.6 707.9
Oct. 3, 2019 303 -26.5 C -67.1 C -103.9 C 19.1 4.9 0.1 SSE 741.7 724.2 711.3
Oct. 2, 2019 302 -25.3 C -69 C -102 C 20.2 4.8 0.2 SSE 741.8 727.1 710.8
Oct. 1, 2019 301 -26.4 C -69.7 C -103.9 C 17.9 4.6 0.1 SE 743.1 727.9 711.7

Time Air Temperature (°C) Wind Speed (m/s) Pressure (Pa)
Date Sol Max Avg Min Max Avg Min Direction Max Avg Min
Sep. 30, 2019 300 -25.6 C -68.9 C -103.2 C 22 5.1 0.1 SSE 745 729.3 711.3
Sep. 29, 2019 299 -27.7 C -69.9 C -101.3 C 17.3 4.7 0.2 SSE 746.3 730.3 712.9
Sep. 28, 2019 298 -26.8 C -75.6 C -104.1 C 17.9 4.1 0.1 SW 746.7 733.2 713.2
Sep. 27, 2019 297 -26.1 C -71.1 C -103.7 C 18 4.6 0.1 SSE 748.6 732 713.2
Sep. 26, 2019 296 -26.4 C -63.3 C -102.9 C 18.2 4.8 0.1 SE 748.7 730 715.3
Sep. 25, 2019 295 -26.6 C -69.7 C -102.1 C 22.6 5.4 0.1 SE 751.2 733.9 716.2
Sep. 24, 2019 294 -24.8 C -65 C -100.4 C 17.1 4.6 0.2 SSE 751.5 732.5 716.4
Sep. 23, 2019 293 -26.4 C -61.6 C -102 C 19.1 5 0.2 SSE 753.5 738.2 718.2
Sep. 22, 2019 292 -26.4 C -68.8 C -101.2 C 16.6 4.6 0.2 SE 753.6 739.3 718.9
Sep. 21, 2019 291 -26.5 C -76.1 C -103.4 C 17.2 4.2 0.1 W 752.7 739.2 718.7
Sep. 20, 2019 290 -26.1 C -67.5 C -102.1 C 17.5 4.6 0.1 SE 757.4 738.7 718.2
Sep. 19, 2019 289 -27.3 C -73.4 C -102.8 C 17.4 4.2 0.1 SW 757.1 742.1 721.2
Sep. 18, 2019 288 -26.3 C -73.7 C -102.3 C 17.7 4.3 0.2 SW 756.4 742.1 720.5
Sep. 17, 2019 287 -26 C -67 C -102.8 C 16.8 4.3 0.1 SSW 758 741.8 723.7
Sep. 16, 2019 286 -26.5 C -61.9 C -101.2 C 16.9 4.7 0.2 SE 759.1 742.2 724.5
Sep. 15, 2019 285 -27.1 C -72.1 C -100.8 C 21.3 4.3 0.2 SSW 757.9 742 723.2

Time Air Temperature (°C) Wind Speed (m/s) Pressure (Pa)
Date Sol Max Avg Min Max Avg Min Direction Max Avg Min
Aug. 28, 2019 268 -27.1 C -69.9 C -99.6 C 15.9 4.6 0.2 SSE 769.4 749.6 733.8
Aug. 27, 2019 267 -27.5 C -69.1 C -101.5 C - - - n/a 771 752.9 735.1
Aug. 25, 2019 265 -26.3 C -65.2 C -99.4 C 16.1 5.3 0.2 SSE 774.1 754.6 733.4
Aug. 24, 2019 264 -26.7 C -75.8 C -101 C 17.4 4.1 0.2 SW 775.3 759.3 738.4
Aug. 23, 2019 263 -27.2 C -74.6 C -100.9 C 18.3 3.8 0.2 SW 776.4 760.1 738.4
Aug. 22, 2019 262 -26.4 C -75.5 C -101.3 C 15.8 4.2 0.1 SSE 776.7 760.9 740.1
Aug. 21, 2019 261 -26.6 C -78 C -102.4 C 16 4.8 0.2 SW 778.9 764.4 738.6
Aug. 20, 2019 260 -28.6 C -75.9 C -101.7 C - - - n/a 777.8 762.5 741.1
Aug. 19, 2019 259 -27.1 C -71.2 C -101 C 17.6 4.4 0.2 SSW 780.4 761 742.1
Aug. 18, 2019 258 -26.2 C -65.5 C -100 C 16.8 4.7 0.2 SSE 779 759 741.6
Aug. 17, 2019 257 -26.5 C -69.3 C -100.2 C 17.1 4.4 0.2 SSE 780.1 761 741.4
Aug. 16, 2019 256 -25.6 C -70 C -101.7 C 17.9 4.2 0.1 SW 780.1 760.2 741.7
Aug. 15, 2019 255 -24.7 C -69.3 C -100.1 C 17.3 4.5 0.2 SSW 780.5 762.5 744.1
Aug. 14, 2019 254 -25.9 C -62.8 C -99.3 C 18.1 4.9 0.2 SE 781.6 758.3 739.2
Aug. 13, 2019 253 -25.5 C -69.5 C -100 C 16.4 4.5 0.2 SSE 780.9 762.4 744
Aug. 12, 2019 252 -26 C -73.7 C -100.8 C 18.3 4.2 0.1 SSW 781.6 763.6 744.4
Aug. 11, 2019 251 -26.5 C -69.4 C -101 C 17.5 4.2 0.2 SSE 781.4 762.3 743
Aug. 10, 2019 250 -26.2 C -72 C -100 C 16.2 4.3 0.2 SSE 781.2 762.3 743.7
Aug. 9, 2019 249 -26 C -69.1 C -98.8 C 17.5 4.3 0.2 SSE 781.1 762.3 744.3
Aug. 8, 2019 248 -25.8 C -71.2 C -99.6 C 16.7 4.5 0.2 SSE 781.2 763.2 743.7
Aug. 7, 2019 247 -26.5 C -68.9 C -100.4 C 16.8 4.6 0.2 SSE 779.4 761.3 743.4
Aug. 5, 2019 246 -26.5 C -64.9 C -99.4 C 18.1 5.3 0.2 SSE 0 0 0
Aug. 4, 2019 245 -25.6 C -68.8 C -99.9 C 17.7 4.6 0.2 SSE 780.2 761.5 742.9
Aug. 3, 2019 244 -27.1 C -70.2 C -100.3 C 15.9 4.4 0.2 SSE 783.1 763.5 742.9
Aug. 2, 2019 243 -25.9 C -69.3 C -99.8 C 17.1 4.5 0.2 SSE 782 763.2 743.4
Aug. 1, 2019 242 -26.1 C -69.1 C -99.1 C 17.1 4.7 0.2 SW 781.5 763.2 743.9

Time Air Temperature (°C) Wind Speed (m/s) Pressure (Pa)
Date Sol Max Avg Min Max Avg Min Direction Max Avg Min
July 31, 2019 241 -26.2 C -68.5 C -100.5 C 16.2 4.6 0.1 SSE 782.3 763.5 743.8
July 30, 2019 240 -25 C -68.6 C -98.5 C 15.8 4.5 0.2 SW 781.9 763.4 743.5
July 29, 2019 239 -25.7 C -68.3 C -98 C 20.4 5.3 0.2 SW 782.9 763.8 743.3
July 23, 2019 233 -25.7 C -68.4 C -98.8 C 16.2 4.6 0.2 SE 780.8 764.3 744.1
July 20, 2019 230 -26.1 C -68.3 C -99.3 C 15.2 4 0.2 SE 781.8 764.5 744.1
July 19, 2019 229 -24.7 C -68.2 C -99.2 C 14.8 4 0.2 SW 782 763.9 743.4
July 18, 2019 228 -25 C -68.8 C -98.7 C 14.5 4.2 0.2 SSE 782.5 764.7 742.3
July 17, 2019 227 -25.4 C -68.6 C -100 C 15 4.2 0.2 SE 781.9 764.7 742.1
July 16, 2019 226 -25.9 C -68.3 C -98 C 14.8 4.1 0.2 SSW 782.2 764.5 740.7
July 15, 2019 225 -25 C -68.2 C -98.3 C 15 4.2 0.2 SE 782.6 764.6 741.3
July 14, 2019 224 -25.8 C -69.4 C -100.8 C 14.8 4.2 0.1 SSE 782.9 764.8 741.4
July 13, 2019 223 -25.5 C -69.1 C -100.8 C 17.4 4.3 0.2 SE 781.5 764.2 740.8
July 12, 2019 222 -24.8 C -68.9 C -99.7 C 15.6 4.2 0.2 SSE 781.1 764 739.8
July 11, 2019 221 -23.8 C -69.7 C -99.4 C 14.1 4.1 0.2 SSE 780.3 763.6 739.1
July 10, 2019 220 -25.9 C -70.4 C -101.2 C 16 4 0.2 SSE 780.4 763.7 738.5
July 9, 2019 219 -24.9 C -68.8 C -100.3 C 16.1 4.5 0.2 SE 782.6 764.9 739.9
July 8, 2019 218 -26.1 C -69.2 C -100.2 C 16 4.6 0.2 SE 779.7 764.2 741.2
July 6, 2019 216 -24.9 C -65.4 C -102.5 C 15.8 4.6 0.1 SSE 780.2 762 739.3
July 5, 2019 215 -25 C -69 C -101.7 C 14.6 4.2 0.1 SSE 781.7 764.1 740.3
July 4, 2019 214 -24.7 C -68.9 C -101.2 C 14.5 4.2 0.2 SSE 779.7 762.7 738.2
July 3, 2019 213 -25.2 C -69 C -102.1 C 15.1 4 0.1 WSW 779.3 761.6 736.4
July 2, 2019 212 -24.2 C -64.9 C -102.1 C 15.7 4.3 0.1 SSE 781.4 761.5 737.2
July 1, 2019 211 -24.3 C -68.5 C -101 C 15.4 4.3 0.1 SSW 782.7 762.9 738.1

Time Air Temperature (°C) Wind Speed (m/s) Pressure (Pa)
Date Sol Max Avg Min Max Avg Min Direction Max Avg Min
June 29, 2019 210 -25.4 C -68.6 C -101 C 15.6 4.4 0.1 SE 781.6 762.4 737.4
June 28, 2019 209 -23.7 C -69 C -103 C 15.5 4.3 0.1 SSE 778.3 761.1 737.6
June 27, 2019 208 -23.7 C -68.7 C -102.3 C 15.4 4.3 0.1 SSE 777.5 761.6 739.5
June 26, 2019 207 -25 C -69.2 C -103.9 C 15.8 4.3 0.1 SE 778 762.9 740.2
June 25, 2019 206 -25.3 C -65.4 C -103.5 C 15.6 4.8 0.1 SE 775.4 760.1 740.1
June 24, 2019 205 -24.9 C -69.6 C -103.9 C 15.9 4.3 0.1 SSE 775.3 760.6 739
June 23, 2019 204 -25.3 C -69.7 C -104.1 C 15.3 4.3 0.1 W 775.8 761.4 739.7
June 22, 2019 203 -25.7 C -72.9 C -104 C 14.6 4 0.1 SSE 775.8 761.9 739.4
June 21, 2019 202 -24.4 C -69.6 C -103.3 C 15.4 4.4 0.1 SSE 775.1 760.2 739.2
June 20, 2019 201 -24 C -69.7 C -103.3 C 16.1 4.2 0.1 SSE 775.3 759.7 738.1
June 19, 2019 200 -24.6 C -70.1 C -104.3 C 15.6 4.2 0.1 SSE 777.3 760.2 738.2
June 18, 2019 199 -23.2 C -70.5 C -104.7 C 14.9 4.1 0.1 W 775.2 759.8 737.4
June 17, 2019 198 -24.7 C -70 C -104.8 C 15.5 4 0.1 SSE 774.5 758.3 735.6
June 16, 2019 197 -23.3 C -69.7 C -105.2 C 15.9 4.1 0.1 SSE 775.2 758.1 735.9
June 15, 2019 196 -22.3 C -70 C -105.3 C 15.9 4.4 0.1 W 775.6 759.1 737.5
June 14, 2019 195 -23.8 C -69.9 C -105.6 C 14.5 4.3 0.1 SSE 776.9 759.5 738.3
June 13, 2019 194 -23.5 C -69.5 C -104.4 C 17 4.5 0.1 SSE 774.1 757.3 738.1
June 12, 2019 193 -23 C -69.6 C -103.7 C 35.1 9.8 0.3 SSE 774.8 757.2 737.3
June 11, 2019 192 -23.6 C -65.9 C -104.9 C 15.4 5 0.1 SSE 775.2 758.9 739.6
June 10, 2019 191 -21.6 C -69.6 C -104.9 C 15.2 4.4 0.1 SSE 775.2 758.7 740.4
June 9, 2019 190 -22.5 C -69.3 C -104.1 C 16.6 5.2 0.2 SSE 772.5 757.4 739.5
June 8, 2019 189 -22.4 C -69.4 C -102.2 C 16.5 4.7 0.2 SSE 773.6 756.6 738.9
June 7, 2019 188 -21.9 C -65.2 C -102.5 C 15.6 4.8 0.1 SSE 772.4 757.3 738
June 6, 2019 187 -21.9 C -68.6 C -102.8 C 16.1 4.4 0.2 SSE 774.6 757.4 735.4
June 5, 2019 186 -21.8 C -68.4 C -101.7 C 16.2 4.6 0.2 SSE 772.1 755.9 733.5
June 4, 2019 185 -21.2 C -68.4 C -100.7 C 15.3 4.5 0.2 W 771.7 755.1 732.3
June 3, 2019 184 -22.1 C -68.7 C -101.3 C 15.2 4.5 0.2 W 771.8 755.3 730.9
June 2, 2019 183 -22.3 C -63 C -101.1 C 15.2 4.9 0.2 SSE 773.3 757.1 731.2
June 1, 2019 182 -22.6 C -51.3 C -99.7 C 15.9 5.7 0.2 SSE 772.4 753.9 730.7

Time Air Temperature (°C) Wind Speed (m/s) Pressure (Pa)
Date Sol Max Avg Min Max Avg Min Direction Max Avg Min
May 31, 2019 181 -20.7 C -63.8 C -100.6 C 14.9 5.1 0.2 SW 770.2 753 729.8
May 30, 2019 180 -21.8 C -64.3 C -101.1 C 14.7 4.7 0.2 S 769.8 752.4 729.1
May 29, 2019 179 -21.5 C -63.9 C -101 C 14.5 4.8 0.2 SW 772.4 754.5 729.9
May 28, 2019 178 -23 C -64 C -101.1 C 15 4.9 0.2 SW 771.3 752.2 728.6
May 27, 2019 177 -21.3 C -63.7 C -100.7 C 17.1 4.8 0.2 SW 769 751.8 727.5
May 26, 2019 176 -19.9 C -68 C -100.3 C 15.9 4.2 0.2 W 770.2 751.6 727.1
May 23, 2019 174 -21.3 C -67.6 C -101.1 C 16.3 4.3 0.2 SW 770.2 751.7 728.2
May 22, 2019 173 -20.9 C -63.7 C -100.9 C 14.1 4.9 0.2 SW 769.2 751.1 726.2
May 22, 2019 172 -20 C -65 C -133.5 C - - - n/a 769.5 749.6 726.8
May 20, 2019 171 -20.9 C -63.7 C -100.5 C 14.8 4.9 0.2 SW 769.6 751.7 727.7
May 19, 2019 170 -21.2 C -63.4 C -100.9 C 14.6 4.7 0.2 SW 767.1 749.4 726.8
May 18, 2019 169 -17.6 C -67.8 C -100.6 C 15.5 4.6 0.2 S 768 748.9 724.9
May 17, 2019 168 -19.6 C -63.6 C -100.5 C 12.6 4.6 0.2 SW 768.1 745.7 724.6
May 16, 2019 167 -20.4 C -65.1 C -100.5 C 13.5 4.7 0.5 SW 769.2 751.8 724.7
May 15, 2019 166 -20.5 C -63.8 C -100.5 C 11.7 4.6 0.2 SSE 769.2 749.2 725.6
May 14, 2019 165 -18.2 C -65.7 C -100.3 C 13.7 4.6 0.6 SW 767.8 750.5 725.7
May 13, 2019 164 -16.6 C -63.8 C -100 C 15.1 4.4 0.2 SW 766.4 747.6 725
May 12, 2019 163 -17.7 C -64.2 C -99.9 C 15.2 4.3 0.3 SW 766.2 746.7 724.8
May 11, 2019 162 -20.3 C -67.9 C -100.2 C 14.3 4.1 0.2 WNW 766.3 747 724.9
May 10, 2019 161 -19.5 C -67.5 C -98.6 C 15.2 4.2 0.2 W 765.2 746.1 722.8
May 9, 2019 160 -19.4 C -63.7 C -99.5 C 13.5 4.6 0.2 SSE 765 745.1 721.2
May 8, 2019 159 -21.6 C -67.9 C -100.3 C 15.3 4.2 0.2 W 765.4 744.7 720
May 7, 2019 158 -21.8 C -64.8 C -99.7 C 13.6 4.8 0.8 SSE 765.4 746.2 719.8
May 6, 2019 157 -18.4 C -67.4 C -100.2 C 14.6 4.1 0.2 W 764.9 743.5 719.5
May 5, 2019 156 -18.1 C -63.5 C -99.2 C 13.8 4.7 0.2 SW 763.6 743.5 719.7
May 4, 2019 155 -18.8 C -63.4 C -99.3 C 14.3 4.5 0.2 SW 762.8 742 720.7
May 3, 2019 154 -17.2 C -63.5 C -97.6 C 13.1 4.5 0.2 SW 763 743.3 719.9
May 2, 2019 153 -17.5 C -63.5 C -98.5 C - - - n/a 762.2 743.1 719.7
May 1, 2019 152 -17.2 C -63.3 C -98.1 C 13.2 4.8 0.2 SW 760.8 741.9 717.8

Time Air Temperature (°C) Wind Speed (m/s) Pressure (Pa)
Date Sol Max Avg Min Max Avg Min Direction Max Avg Min
Apr. 30, 2019 151 -17.5 C -67.1 C -97.1 C 12.3 4.1 0.2 W 761.6 741.2 717.9
Apr. 29, 2019 150 -20.4 C -63.8 C -98.5 C 14.4 4.6 0.3 SW 760.8 741.1 717.6
Apr. 28, 2019 149 -19.5 C -63.4 C -98.8 C 14.2 4.6 0.2 SW 760 739 716.1
Apr. 27, 2019 148 -18.2 C -67.1 C -99.1 C 14.3 4.2 0.2 W 761.1 739.1 714.7
Apr. 26, 2019 147 -23.5 C -74.7 C -98.4 C 11.7 3.7 0.2 W 762 740.8 714.7
Apr. 25, 2019 146 -17.7 C -64.6 C -98.6 C 11.6 4.8 0.5 SW 761.2 741.3 714.9
Apr. 24, 2019 145 -19.3 C -65.1 C -98.1 C 11.6 4.4 0.2 SW 762.1 739.3 716
Apr. 23, 2019 144 -17.6 C -64.4 C -98.7 C 11.1 4.2 0.2 SW 760 737.5 714.5
Apr. 22, 2019 143 -19.8 C -63.3 C -98 C 12.1 4.6 0.2 SW 758.9 736.4 713.2
Apr. 21, 2019 142 -18.4 C -66.8 C -97.5 C 14.8 4.2 0.2 W 758.3 735.9 712.3
Apr. 20, 2019 141 -19.7 C -64 C -98.3 C 12.9 4.7 0.5 SW 758.8 737.1 712.6
Apr. 19, 2019 140 -18 C -69.2 C -98.6 C 14.2 4 0.2 W 758.8 735.2 712.2
Apr. 18, 2019 139 -18.1 C -62.9 C -97.6 C 12.2 4.7 0.3 SW 757.5 734.1 708.9
Apr. 17, 2019 138 -17.3 C -65.5 C -97.7 C 12.6 4.3 0.2 W 756.8 733.6 709.2
Apr. 15, 2019 137 -15.9 C -64.7 C -97 C 12.4 4.3 0.2 SW 754.6 732.7 709
Apr. 14, 2019 136 -16.5 C -65.9 C -97.3 C 10.8 4.3 0.3 WNW 754.4 732.4 708.5
Apr. 13, 2019 135 -16.6 C -65.8 C -96.5 C 11.3 4.2 0.2 SW 754.2 732.8 709.7
Apr. 12, 2019 134 -18.2 C -62.5 C -98.4 C - - - n/a 755.7 731.1 708.4
Apr. 11, 2019 133 -15.7 C -65.8 C -96.8 C 11.7 4.2 0.2 W 754.2 731.3 706.8
Apr. 10, 2019 132 -16.3 C -65.9 C -97.7 C 12.2 4.3 0.2 SW 752.8 730.8 706.9
Apr. 9, 2019 131 -15.6 C -66 C -98.2 C 11.6 4.1 0.2 WNW 752.9 731.1 707.3
Apr. 8, 2019 130 -15.5 C -65.8 C -98 C 11.7 4.1 0.2 SW 752.4 731.2 707.7
Apr. 7, 2019 129 -16.7 C -65.9 C -97.7 C 11.9 4.1 0.2 SW 752.2 730.2 707
Apr. 6, 2019 128 -15.5 C -65.3 C -97.5 C 13.6 4.1 0.2 SW 750.6 719.1 707.4
Apr. 5, 2019 127 -16.8 C -65.5 C -96.6 C 11.2 4.2 0.3 SW 751.4 730.3 707.5
Apr. 4, 2019 126 -17 C -65.1 C -97 C 10.7 4 0.2 SW 750.5 730.2 707.5
Apr. 3, 2019 125 -16.8 C -65.5 C -97.2 C 11.7 4 0.2 SW 749.8 729.4 706.2
Apr. 2, 2019 124 -16.7 C -65.9 C -97.9 C 11.8 4 0.2 SW 750.3 728.6 705.6

Time Air Temperature (°C) Wind Speed (m/s) Pressure (Pa)
Date Sol Max Avg Min Max Avg Min Direction Max Avg Min
Mar. 28, 2019 119 -15 C -60.9 C -97.4 C 10.1 4.3 0.2 SW 750.3 728.2 704.5
Mar. 24, 2019 115 -15.5 C -61.6 C -96 C - - - n/a 750.7 725.5 700.6
Mar. 23, 2019 114 -15.5 C -65 C -96.8 C - - - n/a 749.2 725.5 700.9
Mar. 22, 2019 113 -15.3 C -64.6 C -96.7 C - - - n/a 748.7 724 700.4
Mar. 17, 2019 108 -14.4 C -50.3 C -96.1 C 13.1 5.2 0.3 SW 750.4 724.8 697.5
Mar. 16, 2019 107 -15.8 C -64.6 C -96.1 C 10.4 4.1 0.2 SW 749.4 723.5 697.7
Mar. 15, 2019 106 -15.9 C -64.5 C -96.3 C 12.4 4.1 0.2 WNW 751.2 724.9 698.5
Mar. 14, 2019 105 -14.7 C -64.3 C -95.7 C 12.1 4 0.2 SW 748.5 724.7 698.4
Mar. 13, 2019 104 -14.4 C -64.1 C -96.1 C 11.1 4.2 0.2 WNW 748 723.7 697.1
Mar. 12, 2019 103 -19.1 C -61.1 C -95.8 C 14 4.9 0.2 WNW 748.6 724.2 697.3
Mar. 11, 2019 102 -17 C -64.2 C -96.8 C 12.7 4.6 0.4 SW 749.4 725.2 697.4

Temperature Over Time

At the moment, the chart below is capable of displaying all the historical data (and even shows the gaps where I failed to collect any). After about 2 years the data will require sub-pixel metrics. That gives me enough time to figure out how I'm going to handle that. Incidentally, the graph can cope with a full Martian year of 686.97 days, so I'll probably resort to displaying the full Martian year and allow you to choose the start or end dates to display.

Horizontal lines indicate maximum and minimum values after smoothing out anomolies

Vertical lines indicate:
SE (spring equinox), SS (summer solstice), AE (autumn equinox), WS (winter solstice)
AP (aphelion - furthest distance from the sun), PE (perihelion - closest approach to the sun)
MSC (Mars Solar Conjunction - Earth and Mars on opposite sides of the Sun)
CVI (Covid-19 related interruption to datastream)

Use cursor to determine dates

Temperature Records since March 11th 2019
°CLowestHighestRangeCurrent°FLowestHighestRangeCurrent
Max Max
Avg Avg
Min Min

Data in the above chart is derived after smoothing out spikes and troughs with a ≥±10°C or greater deviance.

Current Time in Elysium

The lander is in the south-west corner of Elysium Planitia, approximately 135°E 4.5°N. The Martian day - or sol - is 24hrs 39mins 35secs long. For convenience, Martian clocks keep a 24hr time, requiring the Martian second to be a little longer than it is on Earth (approx 1.0275 secs).

These clocks reflect the local times at the prime meridian and InSight's location and keep Martian time (using its extended seconds). InSight was intended to land at 135.974°E, but actually landed at 135.6234°E. The InSight Clock uses the actual landing site, while the Mission Clock (used by the mission team) uses the intended landing site.

LS is the solar longitude - the angular position of the planet from the vernal equinox - and is important in many equations, particularly regarding time and dates. The value displayed here differs from that at James Tauber's Mars Clock, which itself differs from the value displayed by Mars24. I had to choose one of them as my benchmark, and since I use Mars24 as the benchmark for the clocks, it seemed reasonable to choose Mars24 to remain consistent. The difference between the two (Mars24 and Tauber's algorithm) is only 0.00628° anyway, but otherwise they are in lock-step.

Although LS effectively describes the planet's position in its orbit around the sun, it is actually a function of time on the planetary analemma, since it describes the position on the analemma for a certain date and time.

MSD is the Martian equivalent of a Julian date, and this refers to the number of sols since Dec 29th 1873. For obvious reasons, this keeps Martian time. Note: if you use the Mars24 program, you may note the MSD displayed in that program differs slightly from this one. It seems Mars24 rounds the numbers, so when MSD reaches a 0.005 precision boundary, it rounds up. It doesn't seem to do this for MJD.

MJD is the Modified Julian Date. This ignores the first 2,400,000 days in the standard Julian date, and moves the starting point to midnight (from midday). This is further modified to reflect the coordinated universal time for spacecraft, which is some 5hrs 45m adrift of UTC.

Since MSD uses Martian time and MJD uses universal time, you'll see them slide in and out of synchronicity.

There are several Martian Calendars in use. NASA uses MSD, but the year/month calculations in the above clocks use the calendar proposed by R. Todd Clancy (Clancy et al., Journal of Geophys. Res 105, p 9553, 2000), whereby the Calendar begins at midnight on the morning of April 11th 1955 (when Ls = 0) and with the first year being year 1.

Martian years are approx. 686 days long, equating to roughly 668 sols. Sols are counted from the start of the year because of the huge variance in the length of Martian months. Martian months vary in duration from 46 to 67 sols.

Martian months are calculated based on the number of degrees Mars is around its orbit (each month being 30°). This means most months end partway through the day. In order to ensure a month consists of whole days, the calculation employed here rounds down to the nearest whole number. Therefore, if the end of the month occurs on sol 68.2, all of sol 68 occurs in the last day of the month. This is a convenience, and there is no formal convention on how to handle this. Other calculators may begin a month on any day where the month begins, so in the above example, sol 68 may be the first sol in the new month.

If you are wondering why the sols on the clocks don't match the sols in the weather reports, the weather reports refer to mission time, rather than the start of the Martian year. Besides being a convenient way to track mission duration, it guarantees two data points in different years have unique sol counts.

In addition, the weather report in the graphic at the top of the page is usually a few days in arrears. The Sol counter in the mission clock reports the current mission date.

Current Location of Mars

no data

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[1] the calculation is based on data from the Planetary Society, and divides the Martian year using the equinoxes and solstices. Further, it uses UTC to perform the calculations rather than Airy Mean Time (AMT), so is only an approximation to provide a rough guide. AMT is the Martian equivalent of GMT. The Martian year is 686.97 standard days (668.6 sols), approximately 1.88 years.

[2] Calculation is based on data from Goddard Institute for Space Studies

[3] Calculation is based on data from Goddard Institute for Space Studies and other sources

Current positions of Earth and Mars Image courtesy of https://in-the-sky.org and © Dominic Ford

This image is updated once per week. A daily update is available on the Mars Solar Conjunctionsplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigMars Solar Conjunction

This page is currently inactive for 2019 conjunction (until next conjunction in 2021)

Mars is heading for a solar conjunction, which in layman's terms means it's on the opposite side of the sun from the Earth. For a short period, no commands will be sent to the Mars spacecraft (which includes landers and rovers) since the sun's corona could corrupt those commands and result in unintended actions, disablement of the spacecraft or worse.
page when such events are active.

You can check the position of Mars vs the Sun and Earth for any date here: https://in-the-sky.org/solarsystem.php?obj=P4

See Also

Orbital Shenanigansplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigOrbital Shenanigans

[MOLA map of Mars coloured by elevation]

Edited: 2019-03-14

Sometimes when you do some research – actually, quite often – you find out some really interesting stuff and end up changing your mind. In my story, I had some people on the ground on Mars, and wanted a spacecraft in a geostationary orbit above them to give them communications between them at all times. Just for info, when talking about geostationary orbits, the accepted term for Mars is aerostationary. I’ll use g…
| Mars Solar Conjunctionsplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigMars Solar Conjunction

This page is currently inactive for 2019 conjunction (until next conjunction in 2021)

Mars is heading for a solar conjunction, which in layman's terms means it's on the opposite side of the sun from the Earth. For a short period, no commands will be sent to the Mars spacecraft (which includes landers and rovers) since the sun's corona could corrupt those commands and result in unintended actions, disablement of the spacecraft or worse.
| Perseverance Roverplugin-autotooltip__default plugin-autotooltip_bigPerseverance Rover

Perseverance has launched succesfully and the clock is now counting flight and ETA time. It is due to land on Mars on (times and countdown timer based on NASA's timer):

* Feb 18th 2021. * * * * * * *

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blog/aardvaark/mars_weather.txt · Last modified: 2020/12/05 10:35 (external edit)

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